examining the impact of residential segregation on health has overlooked the complexity of residential segregation and focused only on limited perspectives, such as dissimilarity and isolation indices. 5 Although some work has provided conceptual justifications for selecting certain segregation indices
Chia-Yuan Yu, Ayoung Woo, Christopher Hawkins and Sara Iman
George B. Cunningham
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of demographic dissimilarity from others on subsequent perceptions of differences and affective reactions toward physical activity classes. Students (N = 384) from a large southern university participated in the study. Structural equation modeling indicated that actual demographic dissimilarity from others in the class was positively related to perceptions of such differences. In addition, perceived demographic dissimilarity was positively associated with perceived deep-level differences (i.e., differences based on values, attitudes, and personality), which in turn negatively impacted affective reactions toward the class. Results are discussed in terms of theoretical contributions and implications for teaching physical activity classes.
Ben Jackson, Chris G. Harwood and J. Robert Grove
This study examined the extent to which 2 × 2 achievement goal constructs (Elliot, 1999) were associated with key relational perceptions (i.e., relationship commitment, relationship satisfaction) for members of athlete-athlete dyads. Both members from 82 regional-level partnerships (mean age = 22.72, SD = 3.83) were recruited from a variety of dyadic sports (e.g., tennis, badminton, rowing). Actor-partner interdependence model analyses revealed that greater dissimilarity between partners on mastery-approach and performance-approach goals was associated with lower commitment and satisfaction. Mastery goals displayed positive actor effects with respect to both relationship perceptions, whereas performance-avoidance goals were negatively related to commitment (i.e., actor and partner effects) and satisfaction (i.e., partner effect). These results indicate that achievement goal constructs may align with important interpersonal perceptions in athlete dyads.
Shannon Kerwin and Alison Doherty
The purpose of this study was to investigate factors that moderate the association between substantive task and process conflicts and personal relationship conflict within Canadian intercollegiate athletic departments. The sample population was administrative office personnel in those departments (i.e., directors, managers, and support staff). Based on previous research and tenets of affective events theory, task participation, trust, cohesion, value dissimilarity, and negative affect were hypothesized to influence the likelihood that task and process conflict would trigger relationship conflict. Trust and value dissimilarity were found to significantly moderate the association between task conflict and further relationship conflict. The findings advance theory with regard to mechanisms that reduce negative conflict and enhance our understanding of intragroup conflict in intercollegiate athletics. Implications for research and practice are presented.
Melanie L. Sartore
The purpose of this article is to examine the effects of treatment discrimination as manifested through performance evaluation bias. Research has demonstrated that demographic dissimilarity between raters and ratees can result in performance evaluation bias. As a result of such bias, work-related opportunities based on performance evaluation might be provided to individuals with demographic characteristics similar to those of the rater and not to those whose characteristics differ. The current model suggests that the denial of such opportunities is associated with the formation of self-limiting behavior and subsequent performance detriment. The current model also addresses the formation of a performance feedback loop that potentially leads to future poor performance. Moderators (i.e., task interdependence, time, social category identification, and common group identity) of the proposed relationships are also identified. Additionally, suggestions for future investigations are offered.
Daniela A. Rubin, Diobel M. Castner, Hoang Pham, Jason Ng, Eric Adams and Daniel A. Judelson
During childhood, varying exercise modalities are recommended to stimulate normal growth, development, and health. This project investigated hormonal and metabolic responses triggered by a resistance exercise protocol in lean children (age: 9.3 ± 1.4 y, body fat: 18.3 ± 4.9%), obese children (age: 9.6 ± 1.3 y, body fat: 40.3 ± 5.2%) and lean adults (age: 23.3 ± 2.4 y, body fat: 12.7 ± 2.9%). The protocol consisted of stepping onto a raised platform (height = 20% of stature) while wearing a weighted vest (resistance = 50% of lean body mass). Participants completed 6 sets of 10 repetitions per leg with a 1-min rest period between sets. Blood samples were obtained at rest preexercise, immediately postexercise and 2 times throughout the 1-hr recovery to analyze possible changes in hormones and metabolites. Children-adult differences included a larger exercise-induced norepinephrine increase in adults vs. children and a decrease in glucagon in children but not adults. Similarities between adults and children were observed for GH-IGF-1 axis responses. Metabolically, children presented with lower glycolytic and increased fat metabolism after exercise than adults did. Obesity in childhood negatively influenced GH, insulin, and glucose concentrations. While adults occasionally differed from children, amount of activated lean mass, not maturation, likely drove these dissimilarities.
Alain Ferrand and Monique Pagès
This study is part of a larger investigation concerned with a methodology to evaluate the effectiveness of image sponsoring. The notion of image, which is equivalent to the idea of social representation from social psychology, is central to this series of studies. This study was concerned with the similarities and dissimilarities in the images or social representations of the Lyon's Tennis Grand Prix, France (GPTL) and Perrier, a seller of mineral water. In the first phase, a convenience sample of 80 subjects was presented with a list of 300 adjectives and requested to identify those adjectives that described the tennis event and Perrier, Frequency analyses of these responses showed that 23 adjectives were most often cited as representative of the tennis event, while 16 were cited as representative of Perrier. These items were used in the construction of a semantic differential scale, which was administered to 162 randomly selected subjects who were familiar with both the tennis event and Perrier. Canonical analyses showed that the GPTL and Perrier shared the images of (a) being highly popular and entertaining and (b) being dynamic and successful, but distracting. The results also showed that the GPTL had the images of (a) a distinguished, as opposed to a commercial, enterprise and (b) popular because of its arousal value. Perrier's images dimension was considered to be natural and young as opposed to appreciated. The practical implications of the results are discussed.
Packianathan Chelladurai, Hiroaki Imamura, Yasuo Yamaguchi, Yoshihiro Oinuma and Takatomo Miyauchi
The study explored the differences between Japanese (n = 115) and Canadian (n=100) university level male athletes in their leader behavior preferences, their perceptions of leader behaviors, their satisfactions with leadership and personal outcome, and the relationships between leader behaviors and satisfactions. The results of MANOVA showed that (a) the Japanese athletes preferred more autocratic behavior and social support while the Canadian athletes preferred significantly more training and instruction; (b) the Japanese athletes perceived higher levels of autocratic behavior while the Canadian athletes perceived higher levels of training and instruction, democratic behavior, and positive feedback; and (c) the Canadian athletes expressed significantly more satisfaction with both leadership and personal outcome than the Japanese athletes. The results of the correlational and multiple regression analyses showed similarities as well as dissimilarities in the manner in which perceived leader behaviors were associated with the satisfaction measures in the two groups. Overall, the results of the study were more supportive of the cultural-influence hypothesis than of the athletic-imperatives hypothesis. Author affiliations: P. Chelladurai is with The University of Western Ontario; H. Imamura is with Chiba University, Japan; Y. Yamaguchi is with the National Institute of Sports and Fitness, Japan; Y. Oinuma is with Tokai University, Japan; and T. Miyauchi is with Waseda University, Japan.
William A. Sparrow, Alison J. Shinkfield, Ross H. Day, Sarah Hollitt and Damien Jolley
Recognizing a class of movements as belonging to a “nominal” action category, such as walking, running, or throwing, is a fundamental human ability. Three experiments were undertaken to test the hypothesis that common (“prototypical”) features of moving displays could be learned by observation. Participants viewed moving stick-figure displays resembling forearm flexion movements in the saggital plane. Four displays (presentation displays) were first presented in which one or more movement dimensions were combined with 2 respective cues: direction (up, down), speed (fast, slow), and extent (long, short). Eight test displays were then shown, and the observer indicated whether each test display was like or unlike those previously seen. The results showed that without corrective feedback, a single cue (e.g., up or down) could be correctly recognized, on average, with the proportion correct between .66 and .87. When two cues were manipulated (e.g., up and slow), recognition accuracy remained high, ranging between .72 and .89. Three-cue displays were also easily identified. These results provide the first empirical demonstration of action-prototype learning for categories of human action and show how apparently complex kinematic patterns can be categorized in terms of common features or cues. It was also shown that probability of correct recognition of kinematic properties was reduced when the set of 4 presentation displays were more variable with respect to their shared kinematic property, such as speed or amplitude. Finally, while not conclusive, the results (from 2 of the 3 experiments) did suggest that similarity (or “likeness”) with respect to a common kinematic property (or properties) is more easily recognized than dissimilarity.
Sport Psychology The Influence of Demographic Dissimilarity on Affective Reactions to Physical Activity Classes George B. Cunningham * 6 2006 28 2 127 142 10.1123/jsep.28.2.127 Research Training Perceptual Skill by Orienting Visual Attention Norbert Hagemann * Bernd Strauss * Rouwen Cañal