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Mahin Aghdaei, Alireza Farsi, Maryam Khalaji, and Jared Porter

utilize an associative or dissociative attention allocation strategy. When a mover adopts an associative attention policy, they are focusing on bodily function or sensations (e.g., muscle contractions, breathing), in contrast, when a dissociation strategy is used, the mover blocks out sensory perception

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Jasmin C. Hutchinson and Costas I. Karageorghis

We examined independent and combined influences of asynchronous music and dominant attentional style (DAS) on psychological and psychophysical variables during exercise using mixed methods. Participants (N = 34) were grouped according to DAS and completed treadmill runs at three intensities (low, moderate, high) crossed with three music conditions (motivational, oudeterous, no-music control). State attentional focus shifted from dissociative to associative with increasing intensity and was most aligned with DAS during moderate-intensity exercise. Both music conditions facilitated dissociation at low-to-moderate intensities. At high exercise intensity, both music conditions were associated with reduced RPE among participants with an associative DAS. Dissociators reported higher RPE overall during moderate and high intensities. Psychological responses were most positive in the motivational condition, followed by oudeterous and control. Findings illustrate the relevance of individual differences in DAS as well as task intensity and duration when selecting music for exercise.

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Lorna M. Scott, David Scott, Sonja P. Bedic, and Joseph Dowd

This study outlined the implementation and evaluation of one associative and two dissociative coping strategies on rowing ergometer performance. Participants were 9 novice varsity rowers who performed a 40-min ergometer workout in 10 separate experimental sessions. At each workout participants were requested to row as far as possible in 40 min. A multiple-baseline design was utilized, which after varying amounts of baseline permitted implementing an associative or dissociative strategy for each participant. These strategies included associative, dissociative-video, and dissociative-music. Results indicated that performance improved under all conditions for all participants but that the greatest gains were found in the associative condition.

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Kevin S. Masters and Benjamin M. Ogles

Association and dissociation (A/D) have been identified as important cognitive strategies in the literature on running and exercise. This paper is a comprehensive review of the 20 years of research in the area. Specific topics addressed include historical context, definition and terminology considerations, measurement and design issues, and findings as they pertain to performance, injury, and pain. Several research recommendations are made including change from using the term dissociation, use of multiple measurement methods, diversity of research designs, and study of topics, such as injury, exercise adherence, and emotionality, as they relate to A/D. Finally, practical findings indicate that association relates to faster performance, dissociation relates to lower perceived exertion and possibly greater endurance, and dissociation is not related to injury but association may be.

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Roger T. Couture, Wendy Jerome, and Jeno Tihanyi

This study examined the effects of association and both internal and external dissociation on the performance, perceived fatigue, and rate of exertion of recreational swimmers during two swimming trials. Before the first swim, 69 participants completed a self-report questionnaire. After the first swim, participants were assigned to one of four groups equated with swim performance times: control, associative, internal dissociative, and external dissociative groups. After completing both the first and second swims, participants completed the Rate of Perceived Exertion, Perceived Fatigue Test, and Subjective Appraisal of Cognitive Strategies. Results showed that the group assigned to the associative strategy swam significantly faster (p < .05) than the control group. No changes were found in perceived fatigue and perceived rating of exertion among the groups between the first and second swim. These findings support the position that associative thinking is an important cognitive strategy in timed performances.

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Kevin M. Guskiewicz, Gregory G. Degnan, and Thomas L. Schildwachter

Ligamentous injuries of the wrist and hand are the most common upper extremity injuries seen in young athletes. Unfortunately, these injuries are also the most frequently misdiagnosed. The “sprained wrist” often becomes the diagnosis of convenience, especially once a fracture has been ruled out. In many cases the athlete is treated symptomatically with cryotherapy, immobilization, and rest, and returns to activity as pain allows. Concern, however, has increased recently over potential complications related to associated ligamentous injuries in young athletes. The most common recognized, carpal instability is between the scaphoid and the lunate, the so-called scapholunate dissociation (3).

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Paul Salmon, Scott Hanneman, and Brandon Harwood

We reviewed and summarize the extant literature on associative/dissociative cognitive strategies used by athletes and others in circumstances necessitating periods of sustained attention. This review covers studies published since a prior publication by Masters and Ogles (1998), and, in keeping with their approach, offers a methodological critique of the literature. We conclude that the distinction between associative and dissociative strategies has outlived its usefulness since initially proposed in an earlier era of ground-breaking research by Morgan and Pollock (1977) that was influenced to some extent by psychodynamic thinking. In recent years there has been an evolutionary shift in concepts of sustained attention toward mindfulness—moment-by-moment attention—that has had a significant impact on conceptual models and clinical practice in diverse areas including stress management, psychotherapy, and athletic performance. We propose that future research on cognitive activity in sustained performance settings be embedded in a mindfulness-based conceptual model.

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James W. Roberts, Nicholas Gerber, Caroline J. Wakefield, and Philip J. Simmonds

the dissociation between ventral and dorsal pathways, it was broadly adapted into vision-for-perception and vision-for-action, respectively; something that has been collectively referred to as the Perception-Action Model ( Milner & Goodale, 1995 ). Some of the first evidence to support this

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Leighton Jones, Costas I. Karageorghis, and Panteleimon Ekkekakis

Theories suggest that external stimuli (e.g., auditory and visual) may be rendered ineffective in modulating attention when exercise intensity is high. We examined the effects of music and parkland video footage on psychological measures during and after stationary cycling at two intensities: 10% of maximal capacity below ventilatory threshold and 5% above. Participants (N = 34) were exposed to four conditions at each intensity: music only, video only, music and video, and control. Analyses revealed main effects of condition and exercise intensity for affective valence and perceived activation (p < .001), state attention (p < .05), and exercise enjoyment (p < .001). The music-only and music-and-video conditions led to the highest valence and enjoyment scores during and after exercise regardless of intensity. Findings indicate that attentional manipulations can exert a salient influence on affect and enjoyment even at intensities slightly above ventilatory threshold.

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Marlowe Pecora, Luc Tremblay, and Matthew Heath

–accuracy relations, then results would provide corollary evidence that reaches with decoupled SR spatial relations are mediated via the same visuoperceptual representation as aperture size in spatially dissociated grasping. Methods Participants Fifteen individuals (8 females; age range 20–24 years) from the