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What Factors Contribute to Falls-Related Distal Radius Fracture?

Sheena S. Philip, Joy C. Macdermid, Saranya Nair, Dave Walton, and Ruby Grewal

Distal radius fracture (DRF) is a common, debilitating injury of the upper extremity with a crude incidence of 175.5/100,000 persons in the United States ( Orces & Martinez, 2010 ). The number of older adults (>50 years) who received treatment for forearm and hand fractures increased by 15.2% in U

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Task and Skill Level Constraints on the Generality of the Proximal–Distal Principle for Within-Limb Movement Coordination

Karl M. Newell and Gareth Irwin

A long-held viewpoint in the coordination and control of human movement is that the emerging kinetic/kinematic output within both the upper (i.e., shoulder, elbow, wrist) and lower (i.e., hip, knee, ankle) limb patterns of joint motion follows a proximal–distal sequential order. The proximal–distal

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The Effect of Sensor Placement on Measured Distal Tibial Accelerations During Running

Lauren K. Sara, Jereme Outerleys, and Caleb D. Johnson

the distal-medial aspect of the tibia, directly above the medial malleolus. 4 Several studies have established that substantial proximal shifts in placement, such as directly below the knee, results in systematically lower peak accelerations. 6 , 7 This is due to the increased distance of the sensor

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Association of Proximal and Distal Factors With Lower Limb Kinematics During a Classical Ballet Jump

Anelise Moreti Cabral, Adalberto Felipe Martinez, Vitor Leme, Bruna Calazans Luz, and Fábio Viadanna Serrão

ballet dancers. 7 Proximal (hip) and distal (ankle–foot complex) factors may contribute to impaired dynamic lower limb kinematics. 17 Proximally, an excessive movement of hip adduction may increase dynamic lower limb valgus during weight-bearing activities, 17 and it may occur as a consequence of hip

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Proximal-to-Distal Sequencing and Coordination Variability in the Volleyball Spike of Elite Youth Players: Effects of Gender and Growth

Ben Serrien, Maggy Goossens, and Jean-Pierre Baeyens

, Della-Grasta, Farrell, & Laurent, 1997 ). Despite this great complexity and variations between different sport motions, typical overhand throwing and striking actions show similar topological proximal-to-distal (P-D) sequencing patterns in muscle activity and kinematics ( Hirashima, Kadota, Sakurai

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Electrical Stimulation of Distal Tibial Nerve During Stance Phase of Walking May Reverse Effects of Unilateral Paw Pad Anesthesia in the Cat

Hangue Park, Alexander N. Klishko, Kyunggeune Oh, Celina Zhang, Gina Grenga, Kinsey R. Herrin, John F. Dalton IV, Robert S. Kistenberg, Michel A. Lemay, Mark Pitkin, Stephen P. DeWeerth, and Boris I. Prilutsky

afferents are also involved in regulation of the stance phase duration during locomotion. A low-intensity electrical stimulation of the foot plantar skin or its cutaneous afferents in the sural or distal tibial nerves during the stance (or extensor) phase of walking enhances the activity of extensor muscles

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Differences in Function and Fracture Risk in Postmenopausal Women With and Without a Recent Distal Radius Fracture

Katie Crockett, Saija A. Kontulainen, Jonathan P. Farthing, Philip D. Chilibeck, Brenna Bath, Adam D.G. Baxter-Jones, and Catherine M. Arnold

Distal radius fractures (DRF) are the most common fractures in women over the age of 50 years ( Edwards et al., 2006 ; Handol, Madhok, & Howe, 2006 ; Mulhall, Ahmed, Khan, & Masterson, 2002 ), with the incidence increasing from 9% at age 50–59 to 38% after age 80 ( Barrett-Conner, Weiss, McHorney

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Proximal and Distal Environmental Correlates of Adolescent Obesity

Kathryn C. Nesbit, Thubi A. Kolobe, Sandra H. Arnold, Susan B. Sisson, and Michael P. Anderson


The purpose of this study was to determine how proximal (home) and distal (neighborhood) environmental characteristics interact to influence obesity in early and middle adolescents.


This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study using the 2007 National Survey of Children’s Health (NCSH). Participants were 39,542 children ages 11 to 17 years. Logistic regressions were used to examine the relationship between adolescent obesity and environmental factors, the relative strength of these factors, and the influence of age and gender.


Proximal environmental factors were stronger correlates of adolescent obesity than distal environmental factors. Sedentary behavior related to TV watching time at home was the strongest correlate of adolescent obesity overall (OR 1.13, 95% CI 1.11–1.15). Parks and playgrounds (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.08–0.92), as well as recreation centers (OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.85–0.97) were significant distal environmental factor correlates. Girls and middle adolescents were at less risk for obesity than boys and early adolescents (OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.68–0.82; OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.68–0.96).


The results of this study reveal the importance of proximal environmental characteristics on adolescent obesity relative to distal environmental characteristics. Obesity intervention strategies for adolescents should target sedentary behavior and opportunities for physical activity with a focus on early adolescents and boys.

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Increasing Breast Support is Associated With a Distal-to-Proximal Redistribution of Joint Negative Work During a Double-Limb Landing Task

Hailey B. Fong, Alexis K. Nelson, Deirdre McGhee, Kevin R. Ford, and Douglas W. Powell

greater reliance upon proximal compared with distal musculature. It was hypothesized that increasing breast support would be associated with reductions in ankle joint negative work and increases in hip joint negative work during the landing task. It was further hypothesized that relative ankle joint

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Optimal System Values for Producing a Large Velocity of the Distal Endpoint during Flail-Like Motion

Michele LeBlanc and Jesús Dapena

Equations that clarify the mechanical relationships between various parameter values and the velocity of the distal endpoint of a two-segment kinetic chain modeling the human arm were developed and analyzed. In particular, a single equation was presented that relates the distal endpoint velocity to the system’s angular momentum (as an indicator of muscular torque input), the ratio of the distal segment’s angular velocity to that of the proximal segment (the flail ratio), and the angle between the two segments (the configuration angle). These three system variables were analyzed to examine which values are best for creating a large value for the velocity of the distal endpoint. In addition, a sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine whether the relationships between the system values and the distal endpoint velocity were consistent for varying segment parameters. The relationships found were consistent for the various segment parameters. For any given values of the flail ratio and the configuration angle, the larger the value of the system angular momentum, the larger the value of the distal endpoint velocity. For any given values of the system angular momentum and the configuration angle, the larger the flail ratio, the larger the value of the distal endpoint velocity. For given values of the system angular momentum and the flail ratio, the optimal configuration angle that maximizes the distal endpoint velocity depends on the flail ratio value. While it may be impossible to generate simultaneously the combination of optimal parameter values determined, the knowledge of the relationships of these parameters with each other and with the distal endpoint velocity will aid in the search for an attainable optimal compromise.