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Conor D. Osborough, Carl J. Payton and Daniel J. Daly

The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between swimming speed (SS), stroke length (SL), and stroke frequency (SF) for competitive single-arm amputee front crawl swimmers and assess their relationships with anthropometric characteristics. Thirteen highly trained swimmers (3 male, 10 female) were filmed underwater from a lateral view during seven increasingly faster 25-m front crawl trials. Increases in SS (above 75% of maximum SS) were achieved by a 5% increase in SF, which coincided with a 2% decrease in SL. At SSmax, interswimmer correlations showed that SF was significantly related to SS (r = .72; p < .01) whereas SL was not. Moderate but nonsignificant correlations suggested that faster swimmers did not necessarily use longer and slower strokes to swim at a common submaximal speed when compared with their slower counterparts. No correlations existed between SL and any anthropometric characteristics. Biacromial breadth, shoulder girth, and upper-arm length all significantly correlated with the SF used at SSmax. These findings imply that as a consequence of being deprived of an important propelling limb, at fast swimming speeds SF is more important than SL in influencing the performance outcome of these single-arm amputee swimmers.

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Henrique P. Neiva, Mario C. Marques, Ricardo J. Fernandes, João L. Viana, Tiago M. Barbosa and Daniel A. Marinho


To investigate the effect of warm-up on 100-m swimming performance.


Twenty competitive swimmers (with a training frequency of 8.0 ± 1.0 sessions/wk) performed 2 maximal 100-m freestyle trials on separate days, with and without prior warm-up, in a counterbalanced and randomized design. The warm-up distance totaled 1000 m and replicated the swimmers’ usual precompetition warm-up strategy. Performance (time), physiological (capillary blood lactate concentrations), psychophysiological (perceived exertion), and biomechanical variables (distance per stroke, stroke frequency, and stroke index) were assessed on both trials.


Performance in the 100-m was fastest in the warm-up condition (67.15 ± 5.60 vs 68.10 ± 5.14 s; P = .01), although 3 swimmers swam faster without warm-up. Critical to this was the 1st 50-m lap (32.10 ± 2.59 vs 32.78 ± 2.33 s; P < .01), where the swimmers presented higher distance per stroke (2.06 ± 0.19 vs. 1.98 ± 0.16 m; P = .04) and swimming efficiency compared with the no-warm-up condition (stroke index 3.46 ± 0.53 vs 3.14 ± 0.44 m2 · c−1 · s−1; P < .01). Notwithstanding this better stroke-kinematic pattern, blood lactate concentrations and perceived exertion were similar between trials.


These results suggest that swimmers’ usual warm-up routines lead to faster 100-m freestyle swimming performance, a factor that appears to be related to better swimming efficiency in the 1st lap of the race. This study highlights the importance of performing swimming drills (for higher distance per stroke) before a maximal 100-m freestyle effort in similar groups of swimmers.

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R. Pla, Y. Le Meur, A. Aubry, J.F. Toussaint and P. Hellard

adaptations. A training regime incorporating a large proportion in high-velocity pace swimming seems to shift the stroke rate–velocity relationship toward one in which the body travels greater distances per stroke, improving maximal stroke rate, maximal aerobic power, anaerobic power, and anaerobic capacity

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Mindy Millard-Stafford, Ann E. Swanson and Matthew T. Wittbrodt

stature, and muscle mass likely explain female disadvantages, 1 , 8 as well as shorter levers applying force (distance per stroke). Leg power off start/turns appear to contribute ∼1% of the male advantage 22 in 400 m pool swimming, based upon slightly lower differences (∼7%) in elite 10 km open water

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Senda Sammoud, Alan Michael Nevill, Yassine Negra, Raja Bouguezzi, Helmi Chaabene and Younés Hachana

distance per stroke during elite swimming competition . Med Sci Sports Exerc . 1985 ; 17 ( 6 ): 625 – 34 . doi:10.1249/00005768-198512000-00001 4079732 10.1249/00005768-198512000-00001 14. Deprez D , Buchheit M , Fransen J , Pion J , Lenoir M , Philippaerts RM , Vaeyens R . A

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Roberto Baldassarre, Marco Bonifazi, Paola Zamparo and Maria Francesca Piacentini

, subjective fatigue and muscle glycogen depletion are associated with a decline in the distance per stroke at a given speed in swimming. 35 Similarly to other endurance events of similar duration, OW swimmers should ingest 30 to 60 g·h −1 of CHO during a 10-km race and 90 g·h −1 of CHO during a 25-km race