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Arturo Casado and Andrew Renfree

probability of progression from qualification rounds in the middle-distance running events at a major athletic championship, 5 there is no published research which also incorporates analysis of split times. Incorporation of this variable may assist in furthering understanding of the decision-making process

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Mikihiro Sato, Jeremy S. Jordan and Daniel C. Funk

The current study examines whether a distance running event has the capacity to promote participants’ life satisfaction. The construct of psychological involvement was used to investigate the impact of attitude change through event preparation and subsequent activity. Data were collected four times through online surveys from running event participants (N = 211) over a five-month period. Latent growth modeling analyses revealed that participants’ life satisfaction peaked immediately after the event before receding, indicating that event participation exerted a positive impact on participants’ evaluations toward their lives. A positive significant association was also found between change in pleasure in running and change in life satisfaction. Findings from this study provide empirical support that a distance running event can serve as an environmental determinant that enhances participants’ life satisfaction by providing positive experiences through event participation and forming psychological involvement in physical activity.

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Theresa A. Walton and Ted M. Butryn

In this article, we examine the complex relationship between whiteness and men’s U.S. distance running. Through a critical examination of over 700 print and electronic sources dealing with distance running in the U.S. from the 1970s through the present, we present evidence that distance running has been framed as a “White space” that is threatened by both external factors (dominance of male international distance-running competition by athletes from African nations) and internal factors (lack of U.S. White male success in conjunction with the success of U.S. citizens of color, born within and outside of the U.S.). We also examine several forms of backlash against these perceived threats, including the media focus on a succession of next White hopes, the rise of U.S. only prize money in road races, and the marginalization of African-born U.S. runners. Our analysis reveals how the media works to normalize whiteness within the larger narrative of U.S. distance running and suggests the need for future work on whiteness and sport.

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Montassar Tabben, Laurent Bosquet and Jeremy B. Coquart

Purpose:

This study examined the effect of performance level on the validity and accuracy of middle-distance running-performance predictions obtained from the nomogram of Mercier et al in male runners.

Methods:

Official French track-running rankings for the 3000-, 5000-, and 10,000-m events from 2006 to 2014 were examined. The performance level was determined from the official reference table of the Fédération Française d’Athlétisme, and the runners were divided in 3 groups (ie, low, moderate, and high levels). Only male runners who performed in the 3 distance events within the same year were included (N = 443). Each performance over any distance was predicted using the nomogram from the 2 other performances.

Results:

No difference was found in low- and moderate-performance-level athletes (0.02 ≤ effect size [ES] ≤ 0.06, 95% limits of agreement [LoA] ≤ 6%). By contrast, a small difference in high-performance-level athletes (P < .01, 0.23 ≤ ES ≤ 0.45, 95% LoA ≤ 11.6%) was found.

Conclusion:

The study confirms the validity of the nomogram to predict track-running performance with a high level of accuracy, except for male runners with high performance level (ie, national or international). Consequently, the predictions from the nomogram may be used in training programs (eg, to prescribe tempo runs with realistic training velocities) and competitions (eg, to plan realistic split times to reach the best performance).

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Andrew Renfree, Graham J. Mytton, Sabrina Skorski and Alan St Clair Gibson

Purpose:

To identify tactical factors associated with progression from preliminary rounds in middle-distance running events at an international championship.

Methods:

Results from the 2012 Olympic Games were used to access final and intermediate positions, finishing times, and season-best (SB) times for competitors in men’s and women’s 800-m and 1500-m events (fifteen 800-m races and ten 1500-m races). Finishing times were calculated as %SB, and Pearson product–moment correlations were used to assess relationships between intermediate and finishing positions. Probability (P) of qualification to the next round was calculated for athletes in each available intermediate position.

Results:

There were no significant differences in finishing times relative to SB between qualifiers and nonqualifiers. In the 800-m, correlation coefficients between intermediate and final positions were r = .61 and r = .84 at 400 m and 600 m, respectively, whereas in the 1500-m, correlations were r = .35, r = .43, r = .55, and r = .71 at 400 m, 800 m, 1000 m, and 1200 m, respectively. In both events, probability of qualification decreased with position at all intermediate distances. At all points, those already in qualifying positions were more likely to qualify for the next round.

Conclusions:

The data demonstrate that tactical positioning at intermediate points in qualifying rounds of middle-distance races is a strong determinant of qualification. In 800-m races it is important to be in a qualifying position by 400 m. In the 1500-m event, although more changes in position are apparent, position at intermediate distances is still strongly related to successful qualification.

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Gabrielle M. Turner-McGrievy, Wendy J. Moore and Daheia Barr-Anderson

This study examined differences in diet, particularly vegetarian and vegan, among ultramarathon and other long distance runners. Participants who had completed a half- (HALF), full- (FULL), or ultramarathon (ULTRA) in the past 12 months were recruited to complete an online survey assessing current diet, reason for diet, and other dietary behaviors. A total of 422 participants completed the survey (n = 125 ULTRA, n = 152 FULL, n = 145 HALF). More ULTRA participants were men (63%) (vs. FULL (37%) and HALF (23%)) and ULTRA participants reported significantly more years of running (16.2 ± 13.6) than FULL (12.1 ± 11.1, p < .05) or HALF (10.6 ± 11.6, p < .05). Body mass index (self-reported height/weight) was significantly higher in HALF (24.3 ± 4.4 kg/m2) vs. FULL (23.1 ± 3.2 kg/m2, p < .05). ULTRA runners were almost twice as likely to report following a vegan/vegetarian diet than HALF and FULL marathoners combined (B = 1.94, 95% CI = 1.08, 3.48) and reported following their current diet longer (13.7 ± 15.3 years) than HALF participants (8.6 ± 12.1 years, p = .01). ULTRA participants more commonly cited environmental concerns whereas HALF and FULL participants cited weight loss or maintenance as a reason for following their current diet. There was no difference in diet quality between ULTRA and other runners but vegan and vegetarian runners had higher diet quality scores than nonvegetarian runners (p < .001). The findings point to an interconnectedness between long distance running, diet, and diet choice and can help guide nutrition, exercise, and psychology professionals who are working with distance runners.

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Mark Kenneally, Arturo Casado and Jordan Santos-Concejero

max, VO 2 max, running economy, and LT) of middle- and long-distance running to predict performance exist. 2 The interaction between these variables is the key to endurance running, and it may be possible that race-pace-based training provides the perfect stimulus for their concurrent development. As

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Keith R. Williams, Rebecca Snow and Chris Agruss

This study investigated changes in kinematics with fatigue during intercollegiate competition, a noncompetitive track run, and a constant speed treadmill run. To account for changes in kinematics resulting from speed differences, regression equations for each individual generated from nonfatigue data were used to predict rested kinematics for speeds matching those of the fatigue conditions. A factor analysis procedure grouped 29 kinematic variables into sets of independent factors, and both factor variables and individual variables were analyzed for changes with fatigue, which were minimal. Only one significant difference was found in the factor variables between nonfatigue and fatigue states. Comparisons of specific kinematic variables showed a significant increase in step length with fatigue, an increased maximal knee flexion angle during swing, and an increased maximal thigh angle during hip flexion. While fatigue did not result in marked changes in kinematics for the group as a whole, changes for individuals were at times large.

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Ross Tucker, Vincent O. Onywera and Jordan Santos-Concejero

Purpose:

To investigate the ethnicity of Kenya’s most successful international runners, tracking their evolution over the period of their international emergence and current dominance.

Methods:

The authors analyzed male track distance events from 800m upwards from all the major global athletics championships from 1964 to 2013, and the annual Top-25 world marathon performances since 1990.

Results:

The percentage of top-25 marathon performances and medals won by Kenyan and Kalenjin runners have increased over time with Nandi subtribe outperforming the rest of the world outside Africa (r > .70, large effect). However, Europe, North America, Oceania, Asia, and South America decreased over time in top marathon performances and track medals won (r > .70, large effect). The tribe and subtribe distribution was different in the marathon than in the track: Maasais were more likely to feature in medals won in shorter track events than in the top 25 of the world marathon rankings (risk ratio [RR] = 9.67, very large effect). This was also the case for Marakwets (RR = 6.44, very large effect) and Pokots (RR = 4.83, large effect). On the other hand, Keiyos, Kikuyus, Kipsigis, Sabaots, and Tugens were more likely to succeed in the marathon than in shorter track events (RR > 2.0, moderate effect).

Conclusion:

These data emphasize that the previously documented emergence of African distance runners is primarily a Kenyan phenomenon, driven by the Kalenjin tribe and in particular the Nandi subtribe. This supports the complex interaction between genotype, phenotype, and socioeconomic factors driving the remarkable dominance of Kenyan distance runners.

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Kelsey J. Picha, Michelle L. Weber and Cailee E. Welch

Edited by Michael G. Dolan