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Developing and Sustaining Online and Distance Education Programs in Health and Kinesiology

Paul Keiper and Richard B. Kreider

Online education has become an increasingly popular means of delivering educational programs in health and kinesiology. It has helped departments meet increasing enrollment demands and provided additional resources that support students and faculty. A number of challenges, however, are associated with developing these types of programs. The purpose of this paper is to discuss some of the issues that Texas A&M University has experienced in developing extensive online courses and distance education programs. The paper discusses methods and models employed to develop online and distance programs in health and kinesiology and provides a case study of some of the opportunities and challenges that the Sport Management Division experienced in developing an online master's program. Issues related to efficacy, management, funding, and student success are discussed. Health and kinesiology administrators should consider these issues as they look to develop or grow online course offerings in the discipline.

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The Status of High School Online Physical Education in the United States

David Newman Daum and Craig Buschner

Online learning is changing the educational landscape despite the limited empirical research and conflicting results about its effectiveness to produce student learning. The purpose of this study was to describe the status of online physical education (OLPE) in the United States. Surveys were sent to forty-five high school online physical education teachers and thirty-two were completed, producing a 71% response rate. Three-fourths of the online physical education teachers focused on a fitness curriculum with emphasis on the cognitive domain. Likewise, it was found that almost three-fourths of the OLPE courses did not meet the national guidelines for secondary schools, of 225 min of PE per week. Most of the courses required physical activity three days per week while six courses required no physical activity. Teachers expressed support, hesitation, and even opposition toward online physical education. This study initiates a descriptive database for future research studies regarding online physical education.

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The State of Online Education in Kinesiology in the United States

Matthew T. Mahar, Tyler R. Hall, Michael D. Delp, and James R. Morrow Jr.

Administrators of kinesiology departments (N = 101) completed a survey that requested information about online education, funding for online courses, and administrator perceptions of the rigor and future of online courses. More master's (n = 18) than undergraduate degree (n = 9) programs were totally online. Forty-nine percent of institutions provide funding to faculty and 37% provide funding to departments for online offerings. Respondents indicated concern about the rigor of online courses. Sixty-one percent indicated that academic rigor is a concern of faculty, 42% did not feel that totally online courses were as rigorous as face-to-face classes, and 65% indicated tests for online courses are not proctored. Despite concerns, 76% indicated they expect to have some or many online courses in the next 5-10 years. Few respondents indicated they expected to have no online courses or almost totally online delivery of courses. Online delivery of instruction is impacting kinesiology, and expansion of online education is likely.

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Leveling Up Sport Management Education: Gamification in the Classroom

Ashley M. Duguay, Amber M. Shipherd, Carrie LeCrom, and Chad Goebert

In line with trends in sport management education that have encouraged a transition from traditional forms of passive and depersonalized learning to active and motivated learning, this essay draws on theoretical and applied insight to provide sport management educators with actionable information related to gamification. In educational contexts, gamification involves using game elements such as narratives, teams, and badges in the classroom as a way to support students’ intrinsic motivation and basic psychological needs (i.e., autonomy, competence, relatedness). This essay presents a case for gamification as a high-impact pedagogical approach that can help sport management educators replicate the global, complicated, and dynamic nature of the sport industry, thus creating more authentic, engaging, and influential experiences for students. Accordingly, this essay outlines gamification in education, discusses game elements and design, and provides a thorough description of a gamified sport psychology course. It concludes with future considerations and key takeaways for sport management educators.

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Kinesiology Faculty Reflections on COVID-19 and Future Directions in Online Education

Kayla Baker, Melissa Bopp, Sean M. Bulger, YuChun Chen, Michele L. Duffey, Brian Myers, Dana K. Voelker, and Kaylee F. Woodard

The COVID-19 pandemic proved to be an unprecedented disruptor on college and university campuses as stakeholders at all organizational levels were challenged to consider new approaches to teaching and learning using online course modalities with very limited preparation time and faculty support. Using a case study approach, this paper reviews valuable lessons learned through the experience, particularly regarding shifts in course delivery to include online and hybrid modalities on a widespread scale. Specifically, the authors reviewed the processes, outcomes, and student perceptions associated with online and hybrid course delivery in various kinesiology courses at three different higher education institutions. The paper also offers useful perspectives for kinesiology program administrators and faculty who are contemplating the continued application of online and hybrid course formats in greater capacity postpandemic.

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Use of Animated Pedagogical Agent in Sport Management Education: Effect on Students’ Situational Interest

Gi-Yong Koo, Sara Shoffner, and Jeeheon Ryu

The purpose of this study was to investigate how an animated pedagogical agent (APA) affected an individual’s level of situational interest (SI) using a case study in online education. Although online learning has become popular, the lack of social cues for students in distance-learning contexts has been suggested as problematic. APA has been conceptualized to support social agency theory between students and learning contents. SI has been considered to activate student’s immediate affective response to engage in an authentic learning context. The study examined the effect of APA in a case study on triggered-SI and maintained-SI to determine the benefits of multimedia-based instruction in online learning. A three-factor model including triggered-SI, maintained-SI-feeling, and maintained-SI-value was tested. Results revealed that the use of APA in a case study more positively stimulated students’ SI specific to triggered-SI and maintained-SI-value. Therefore, the implementation of the APA in a distance education setting could benefit students’ learning and also help educators to more effectively deliver a variety of sport management content areas.

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An Examination of the Relationship Between Instruction Type and Course Outcomes in Sport Management Courses

Megan B. Shreffler, Adam R. Cocco, and Jacob R. Shreffler

have turned to online education because it is cost-effective and meets the demands of nontraditional students ( Mansour & Mupinga, 2007 ). Among institutions offering distance education, 77% believe that distance education is crucial to their long-term strategy ( Allen et al., 2016 ). Sport management

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Implications and Opportunities for Sport Management Education in the COVID-19 Era

Mike Rayner and Tom Webb

practice: Critical analysis of the literature on the roles and competencies of online teachers . Distance Education, 32 ( 3 ), 421 – 439 . doi:10.1080/01587919.2011.610293 10.1080/01587919.2011.610293 Bennett , S. , & Lockyer , L. ( 2004 ). Becoming an online teacher: Adapting to a changed

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Special Issue in Online and Remote Coaching: Exploring Coaching Delivery and Coach Education in Online/Digital Environments

Chris Szedlak, Blake Bennett, and Matthew J. Smith

working definition of what constitutes online/digital delivery of coaching and coach education. In doing so, we consider  Simonson and Seepersaud’s ( 2019 ) concept of distance education and align this to the sports coaching/coach education context. Thus, online/digital delivery may be defined as

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Commentary on Kinesiology Undergraduate Preparation: 1968–2018

James R. Morrow Jr.

likeable style kept the audience engaged and was an excellent stepping-off point for the workshop. Jenkins spoke about online (i.e., distance) education and how universities are enhancing, broadening, and reaching out further distances with online offerings. However, he reported that millennials desire to