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Running at Increasing Intensities in the Heat Induces Transient Gut Perturbations

Alice M. Wallett, Naroa Etxebarria, Nicole A. Beard, Philo U. Saunders, Marijke Welvaert, Julien D. Périard, Andrew J. McKune, and David B. Pyne

-intensity exercise resulted in a small, transient elevation in blood LPS concentrations in both the HOT and COOL trials. However, exercising in the heat induced greater GI disturbances, as indicated by the elevated blood concentrations of I-FABP and LBP compared with the COOL trials. Although a greater level of

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Eating Disturbances in Competitive Lightweight and Heavyweight Rowers

Uta Kraus, Sophie Clara Holtmann, and Tanja Legenbauer

Eating Disturbances Among Athletes In the last decade, the relationship between competitive sports and eating disturbances among athletes has gained increasing interest and several studies were initiated that investigated prevalence rates of eating disorders in athletes as well as associations

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Improvement of Elite Female Athletes’ Physical Performance With a 3-Week Unexpected Disturbance Program

Jorg Teichmann, Edin K. Suwarganda, C. Martyn Beaven, Kim Hébert-Losier, Jin Wei Lee, Florencio Tenllado Vallejo, Philip Chun Foong Lew, Ramlan Abdul Aziz, Yeo Wee Kian, and Dietmar Schmidtbleicher

in an unpredictable environment with a majority of anterior cruciate ligament injuries occurring during noncontact or indirect contact situations involving sudden unexpected dynamic perturbation. 2 , 3 An unexpected disturbance program (UDP) has been demonstrated to be effective in promoting

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Competition Between Desired Competitive Result, Tolerable Homeostatic Disturbance, and Psychophysiological Interpretation Determines Pacing Strategy

Carl Foster, Jos J. de Koning, Florentina J. Hettinga, Renato Barroso, Daniel Boullosa, Arturo Casado, Cristina Cortis, Andrea Fusco, Halle Gregorich, Salvador Jaime, Andrew M. Jones, Katherine R. Malterer, Robert Pettitt, John P. Porcari, Cassie Pratt, Patrick Reinschmidt, Phillip Skiba, Annabel Splinter, Alan St Clair Gibson, Jacob St Mary, Christian Thiel, Kate Uithoven, and Joyce van Tunen

31 that humans rarely exercise to the point of total muscular failure suggested that fatigue was not solely related to absolute levels of muscular substrates or metabolites. While there is evidence that homeostatic disturbances are profound during severe exercise, and that exercise end points

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Effectiveness of an Unexpected Disturbance Program in the Early Stage of Rehabilitation in Athletes With Unilateral Knee Ligament Injury

Joerg Teichmann, Rachel Tan, Kim Hébert-Losier, Yeo Wee Kian, Shabana Jalal Din, Ananthi Subramaniam, Dietmar Schmidtbleicher, and C. Martyn Beaven

sensorimotor function. An unexpected disturbance program (UDP) has previously been reported to improve outcomes in both uninjured 1 and injured athletes. 2 In both instances, a positive impact on explosive actions was apparent. In the injured population, perceived confidence improved (ie

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Hardiness and Mood Disturbances in Swimmers while Overtraining

Judy D. Goss

The personality construct of hardiness has been introduced as a moderator in the stress-illness relationship. Hardy individuals are thought to alter their appraisal of stress into a less stressful form. Mood disturbances have been found to be a product of intensive physical training. This investigation examines the relationships between hardiness and mood disturbances in swimmers who are overtraining and between hardiness, mood disturbances, and coping behaviors. Swimmers (N=253) from eight universities and seven competitive club programs completed the Cognitive Hardiness Inventory, the Profile of Mood States, the Everly Coping Scale, and the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale at the beginning of their competitive season, and at two 7-week intervals. Hardy swimmers experienced fewer mood disturbances during the season than nonhardy swimmers. Specifically, hardy swimmers had lower feelings of tension, depression, anger, fatigue, confusion, and higher feelings of vigor. Hardy swimmers also possessed more adaptive coping behaviors.

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Unexpected-Disturbance Program for Rehabilitation of High-Performance Athletes

Jorg Teichmann, Edin K. Suwarganda, Claudia Lendewig, Barry D. Wilson, Wee Kian Yeo, Ramlan Abdul Aziz, and Dietmar Schmidtbleicher


The Unexpected-Disturbance Program (UDP) promotes exercises in response to so-called involuntary short- to midlatency disturbances.


This study investigated the effectiveness of the UDP in the last 6 wk of rehabilitation.


Pre–post study with 2-tailed paired t tests for limited a priori comparisons to examine differences.


National Sports Institute of Malaysia.


24 Malaysian national athletes.


7 sessions/wk of 90 min with 3 sessions allocated for 5 or 6 UDP exercises.

Main Outcomes:

Significant improvements for men and women were noted. Tests included 20-m sprint, 1-repetition-maximum single-leg press, standing long jump, single-leg sway, and a psychological questionnaire.


For men and women, respectively, average strength improvements of 22% (d = 0.96) and 29% (d = 1.05), sprint time of 3% (d = 1.06) and 4% (d = 0.58), and distance jumped of 4% (d = 0.59) and 6% (d = 0.47) were noted. In addition, athletes reported improved perceived confidence in their abilities. All athletes improved in each functional test except for long jump in 2 of the athletes. Mediolateral sway decreased in 18 of the 22 athletes for the injured limb.


The prevention training with UDP resulted in improved conditioning and seems to decrease mediolateral sway.

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Skimmed, Lactose-Free Milk Ingestion Postexercise: Rehydration Effectiveness and Gastrointestinal Disturbances Versus Water and a Sports Drink in Physically Active People

Luis F. Aragón-Vargas, Julián C. Garzón-Mosquera, and Johnny A. Montoya-Arroyo

of D 2 O (deuterium) in the blood ( Williams et al., 2023 ) is warranted to determine where the extra fluid from SLM resides in the body. Regarding GI disturbances, the present study found no significant differences in their appearance or severity among conditions (W, SD, and SLM). GI symptom scores

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Restoration of Menses With Nonpharmacologic Therapy in College Athletes With Menstrual Disturbances: A 5-Year Retrospective Study

Julie C. Arends, Min-Yuen C. Cheung, Michelle T. Barrack, and Aurelia Nattiv


Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea is common among female athletes and may be difficult to treat. Restoration of menses (ROM) is crucial to prevent deleterious effects to skeletal and reproductive health.


To determine the natural history of menstrual disturbances in female college athletes managed with nonpharmacologic therapies including increased dietary intake and/or decreased exercise expenditure and to identify factors associated with ROM.

Study Design:

A 5-yr retrospective study of college athletes at a major Division I university.


373 female athletes’ charts were reviewed. For athletes with menstrual disturbances, morphometric variables were noted. Months to ROM were recorded for each athlete.


Fifty-one female athletes (19.7%) had menstrual disturbances (14.7% oligomenorrheic, 5.0% amenorrheic). In all, 17.6% of oligo-/amenorrheic athletes experienced ROM with nonpharmacologic therapy. Mean time to ROM among all athletes with menstrual disturbances was 15.6 ± 2.6 mo. Total absolute (5.3 ± 1.1 kg vs. 1.3 ± 1.1 kg, p < .05) and percentage (9.3% ± 1.9% vs. 2.3% ± 1.9%, p < .05) weight gain and increase in body-mass index (BMI; 1.9 ± 0.4 kg/m2 vs. 0.5 ± 0.4 kg/m2, p < .05) emerged as the primary differentiating characteristics between athletes with ROM and those without ROM. Percent weight gain was identified as a significant positive predictor of ROM, OR (95% CI) = 1.25 (1.01, 1.56), p < .05.


Nonpharmacologic intervention in college athletes with menstrual disturbances can restore regular menstrual cycles, although ROM may take more than 1 yr. Weight gain or an increase in BMI may be important predictors of ROM.

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Disturbance in Heart Rate during Exercise Following Lntracardiac Repair: Contribution of Cardiopulmonary Bypass

Hélène Perrault, André Davignon, Gail Grief, Anne Fournier, and Claude Chartrand

A disturbance in the chronotropic response to exercise has well documented following surgical repair of a congenital heart defect. Observations of a similar dysfunction following correction of simple atrial as well as ventricular septal defect suggest that its occurrence might be linked to a common denominator in the surgical procedures. Since cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is used for all initacardiac surgeries, the contribution of this factor to the abnormal response was examined. Three groups of patients von; evaluated: VSDop: operated on for a ventricular septal defect, CPB required; VSDnon-op: spontaneous closure of a congenital 73D, no surgery; and PDAoperated on for a patent ductus arteriosus, no CPB required. They were compared io a control group of healthy adolescents (C). The main, finding was that of lower submax final and maximal heart rates in VCDop disc in any other group. These results suggest that placement of cannulae resulting from-CPB could alter the control of heart rate during exercise and contribute to the abnormal chronotropic response following intracardiac repair of a congenital heart defect.