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Susan J. Leach, Joyce R. Maring and Ellen Costello

intervention combining divided attention with a stepping accuracy task ( Leach, Magill, & Maring, 2017 ). The intervention incorporated evidence-based principles related to maintaining an external focus of attention as well as motor and cognitive DT training characteristics. The participant, post incomplete

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Manuel E. Hernandez, Erin O’Donnell, Gioella Chaparro, Roee Holtzer, Meltem Izzetoglu, Brian M. Sandroff and Robert W. Motl

recitation tasks have been commonly used in divided attention paradigms in older adults and persons with MS ( Hernandez et al., 2016 ; Holtzer et al., 2006 ; Learmonth et al., 2016 ). The performance of backward alphabet recitation tasks has demonstrated increased activation in the cortical and subcortical

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Yonghwan Chang

contextual and episodic memories associated with certain celebrities, yet they maintain a subjective familiarity with them. In other words, dividing attention and cognitive resources in order to encode and retrieve various types of information about celebrities may cause the detailed contextual memory of a

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Luke M. Ross, Johna K. Register-Mihalik, Jason P. Mihalik, Karen L. McCulloch, William E. Prentice, Edgar W. Shields and Kevin M. Guskiewicz

Context:

Recent evidence has revealed deficiencies in the ability to divide attention after concussion.

Objective:

To examine the effects of a single vs a dual task on cognition and balance in healthy subjects and to examine reliability of 2 dual-task paradigms while examining the overall feasibility of the tasks.

Design:

Pretest–posttest experimental design.

Setting:

Sports medicine research laboratory.

Patients:

30 healthy, recreationally active college students.

Intervention:

Subjects performed balance and cognitive tasks under the single- and dual-task conditions during 2 test sessions 14 d apart.

Main Outcome Measures:

The procedural reaction-time (PRT) test of the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics (eyes-closed tasks) and an adapted Procedural Auditory Task (PAT; eyes-open tasks) were used to assess cognition. The NeuroCom Sensory Organization Test (SOT) and the Balance Error Scoring System (BESS) were used to assess balance performance. Five 2-way, within-subject ANOVAs and a paired-samples t test were used to analyze the data. ICCs were used to assess reliability across 2 test sessions.

Results:

On the SOT, performance significantly improved between test sessions (F 1,29 = 35.695, P < .001) and from the single to the dual task (F 1,29 = 9.604, P = .004). On the PRT, performance significantly improved between test sessions (F 1,29 = 57.252, P < .001) and from the single to the dual task (F 1,29 = 7.673, P = .010). No differences were seen on the BESS and the PAT. Reliability across test sessions ranged from moderate to poor for outcome measure.

Conclusions:

The BESS appears to be a more reliable and functional tool in dual-task conditions as a result of its increased reliability and clinical applicability. In addition, the BESS is more readily available to clinicians than the SOT.

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Deborah A.M. Jehu, Nicole Paquet and Yves Lajoie

interventions has gained significant interest to improve attention in older adults. Attention refers to the capacity or process of receiving, processing, and attending to incoming stimuli ( Parasuraman, 1998 ). Previous research has used the divided attention model to study the impact of attention demand on

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Lauren A. Brown, Eric E. Hall, Caroline J. Ketcham, Kirtida Patel, Thomas A. Buckley, David R. Howell and Srikant Vallabhajosula

athletes . J Athl Train . 2001 ; 36 : 263 – 273 . PubMed ID: 12937495 12937495 9. Register-Mihalik JK , Littleton AC , Guskiewicz KM . Are divided attention tasks useful in the assessment and management of sport-related concussion? Neuropsychol Rev . 2013 ; 23 : 300 – 313 . PubMed ID

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Alison B. Pritchard Orr, Kathy Keiver, Chris P. Bertram and Sterling Clarren

draw a line through the numbered circles, as in CCTT1, but also alternate between pink and yellow circles. The CCTT2 is more complex than the CCTT1, and in addition to the skills required for CCTT1, it requires divided attention, sequencing, and inhibition/disinhibition skills ( Llorente et al., 2003

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Daniel Hamacher, Dennis Hamacher, Roy Müller, Lutz Schega and Astrid Zech

. , Lai , D. T. H. , Sparrow , W. A. , & Begg , R. K. ( 2015 ). Minimum toe clearance events in divided attention treadmill walking in older and young adults: A cross-sectional study . Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, 12 ( 1 ), 240 . doi:10.1186/s12984-015-0052-2 10.1186/s12984

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Maria K. Talarico, Robert C. Lynall, Timothy C. Mauntel, Erin B. Wasserman, Darin A. Padua and Jason P. Mihalik

. PubMed ID: 15541531 doi:10.1016/j.humov.2004.08.020 15541531 10.1016/j.humov.2004.08.020 33. Register-Mihalik JK , Littleton AC , Guskiewicz KM . Are divided attention tasks useful in the assessment and management of sport-related concussion? Neuropsychol Rev . 2013 ; 23 ( 4 ): 300 – 313

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Chih-Hsiang Yang and David E. Conroy

) training or practice, and divided attention. The four-item Divided Attention subscale from the Everyday Cognition Scale for older adults was applied to characterize participants’ baseline attentional ability ( Farias et al., 2008 ). Prewalk survey Prior to each walking session, participants rated their