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John F. Fitzpatrick, Kirsty M. Hicks and Philip R. Hayes

The physiological response to a given training load is commonly called the dose–response relationship and is considered a fundamental component of training. 1 It has been suggested that a valid measure of training load should show a strong dose–response relationship with a particular training

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Richard J. Taylor, Dajo Sanders, Tony Myers, Grant Abt, Celia A. Taylor and Ibrahim Akubat

the risk of negative training response. 6 The physiological response relative to given training dose is commonly termed the dose-response relationship and is considered a fundamental component of training. 7 As part of the training process, the external TL provides coaches with an objective measure

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Samuel R. Heaselgrave, Joe Blacker, Benoit Smeuninx, James McKendry and Leigh Breen

/strength have been postulated: (1) a dose–response relationship where gradual increases in weekly RT volume lead to a greater increase muscle mass and strength, 6 (2) an inverted-U relationship whereby increasing weekly RT volume beyond a certain threshold negatively impacts skeletal muscle accretion, 12 and

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Meghan Edwards and Paul Loprinzi

behaviors (eg, physical activity) with AIP and the previously mentioned mixed results of experimental work on physical activity and AIP, the purpose of the present brief report was to examine the dose–response association of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and AIP among a nationally

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Margaret Delaney, Meghan Warren, Brian Kinslow, Hendrik de Heer and Kathleen Ganley

were performed in the United States, many focused on high-level individuals, such as runners, participants who had been previously enrolled in larger studies, specific demographic groups, or more narrow age ranges (aged 80 years and older). Limited research did suggest a dose–response relationship in

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Christopher J. Dondzila, Keith P. Gennuso, Ann M. Swartz, Sergey Tarima, Elizabeth K. Lenz, Stephanie S. Stein, Randal J. Kohl and Scott J. Strath

The aim of this study was to examine the dose-response relationship between walking activity and physical function (PF) in community-dwelling older adults. Physical activity (PA, pedometry) and PF (self-report [SF-36] and 6-minute walk test [6MWT]) were assessed in 836 individuals. Accumulated PA was categorized into four groups (1 = ≤ 2,500; 2 = 2,501–5,000; 3 = 5,001–7,500; and 4 = ≥ 7,501 steps/day). Across individual groups 1–4, SF-36 scores increased from 66.9 ± 25.0% to 73.5 ± 23.2% to 78.8 ± 19.7% to 81.3 ± 20.6%, and 6MWT increased from 941.7 ± 265.4 ft to 1,154.1 ± 248.2 ft to 1,260.1 ± 226.3 ft to 1,294.0 ± 257.9 ft. Both SF-36 and 6MWT scores were statistically different across all groups, apart from groups 3 and 4. PA and ranks of groups were highly significant predictors (p < .0001) for both SF-36 and 6MWT. There was a positive dose-response relationship evident for both SF-36 and 6MWT with increasing levels of PA. Low levels of PA appear to be an important indicator of poor functionality in older adults.

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Shawn M. Arent, Daniel M. Landers, Kathleen S. Matt and Jennifer L. Etnier

The purpose of this study was to examine the dose-response gradient of exercise-induced affective change and the role of the stress response as a contributing mechanism. Male and female participants (N = 31) completed three different resistance training protocols (40%, 70%, and 100% of 10-repetition maximum [RM]) and a no-treatment control condition. Affective responses were assessed immediately before and at 0–5, 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes postexercise. Salivary cortisol and heart rate (HR) responses were also assessed during each condition. As predicted, moderate intensity resistance training generally produced the greatest improvements in affect (p < .05). HR and cortisol accounted for as much as 27.3% and 5.4% of the affective variance, respectively. Findings support a curvilinear dose-response relationship between intensity and affective responses, with moderate intensity training resulting in immediate, large, and enduring affective benefits. Results also suggest that moderate activation of the stress response positively influences exercise-induced affective change.

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Yu-Kai Chang and Jennifer L. Etnier

The purpose of this study was to explore the dose-response relationship between resistance exercise intensity and cognitive performance. Sixty-eight participants were randomly assigned into control, 40%, 70%, or 100% of 10-repetition maximal resistance exercise groups. Participants were tested on Day 1 (baseline) and on Day 2 (measures were taken relative to performance of the treatment). Heart rate, ratings of perceived exertion, self-reported arousal, and affect were assessed on both days. Cognitive performance was assessed on Day 1 and before and following treatment on Day 2. Results from regression analyses indicated that there is a significant linear effect of exercise intensity on information processing speed, and a significant quadratic trend for exercise intensity on executive function. Thus, there is a dose-response relationship between the intensity of resistance exercise and cognitive performance such that high-intensity exercise benefits speed of processing, but moderate intensity exercise is most beneficial for executive function.

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Kristen K. Maughan, Kristin A. Lowry, Warren D. Franke and Ann L. Smiley-Oyen

A 6-wk group balance-training program was conducted with physically active older adults (based on American College of Sports Medicine requirements) to investigate the effect of dose-related static and dynamic balance-specific training. All participants, age 60–87 yr, continued their regular exercise program while adding balance training in 1 of 3 doses: three 20-min sessions/wk (n = 20), one 20-min session/wk (n = 21), or no balance training (n = 19). Static balance (single-leg-stance, tandem), dynamic balance (alternate stepping, limits of stability), and balance confidence (ABC) were assessed pre- and posttraining. Significant interactions were observed for time in single-leg stance, excursion in limits of stability, and balance confidence, with the greatest increase observed in the group that completed 3 training sessions/wk. The results demonstrate a dose-response relationship indicating that those who are already physically active can improve balance performance with the addition of balance-specific training.

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Christopher J. Brush, Ryan L. Olson, Peter J. Ehmann, Steven Osovsky and Brandon L. Alderman

The purpose of this study was to examine possible dose–response and time course effects of an acute bout of resistance exercise on the core executive functions of inhibition, working memory, and cognitive flexibility. Twenty-eight participants (14 female; M age = 20.5 ± 2.1 years) completed a control condition and resistance exercise bouts performed at 40%, 70%, and 100% of their individual 10-repetition maximum. An executive function test battery was administered at 15 min and 180 min postexercise to assess immediate and delayed effects of exercise on executive functioning. At 15 min postexercise, high-intensity exercise resulted in less interference and improved reaction time (RT) for the Stroop task, while at 180 min low- and moderate-intensity exercise resulted in improved performance on plus–minus and Simon tasks, respectively. These findings suggest a limited and task-specific influence of acute resistance exercise on executive function in healthy young adults.