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Jozo Grgic, Filip Sabol, Sandro Venier, Ivan Mikulic, Nenad Bratkovic, Brad J. Schoenfeld, Craig Pickering, David J. Bishop, Zeljko Pedisic, and Pavle Mikulic

can acutely enhance aerobic and muscle endurance, muscle strength, power, jumping height, and exercise speed. 4 , 5 In research studies, caffeine is often administered in moderate to high doses (3–6 mg·kg −1 ), with 6 mg·kg −1 being the most common. 4 There is, however, emerging interest in

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Matthew Ellis, Mark Noon, Tony Myers, and Neil Clarke

motor unit firing, which can improve anaerobic performance. 7 High doses (≥5 mg·kg −1 ) of caffeine are ergogenic across a variety of sports (eg, tennis, cycling, rugby, and volleyball). 8 However, ingesting 6 mg·kg −1 of caffeine did not increase in match activities (total distance, sprints, and

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Scott Cocking, Mathew G. Wilson, David Nichols, N. Timothy Cable, Daniel J. Green, Dick H. J. Thijssen, and Helen Jones

are now preclinical studies providing evidence for a dose dependency, where repeated daily IPC improves cerebrovascular function and clinical outcomes. 5 , 6 Nonetheless, a potential hyperconditioning effect from excessive cycles of IPC cannot be excluded. 7 Corroborating the dose hypothesis, recent

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John F. Fitzpatrick, Kirsty M. Hicks, and Philip R. Hayes

The physiological response to a given training load is commonly called the dose–response relationship and is considered a fundamental component of training. 1 It has been suggested that a valid measure of training load should show a strong dose–response relationship with a particular training

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Richard J. Taylor, Dajo Sanders, Tony Myers, Grant Abt, Celia A. Taylor, and Ibrahim Akubat

the risk of negative training response. 6 The physiological response relative to given training dose is commonly termed the dose-response relationship and is considered a fundamental component of training. 7 As part of the training process, the external TL provides coaches with an objective measure

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Liam D. Corr, Adam Field, Deborah Pufal, Jenny Killey, Tom Clifford, Liam D. Harper, and Robert J. Naughton

(single dose on day of exercise stimulus) and subchronic (regular intake for ≥14 days) CF supplementation of ≥200 mg reduces exercise-induced oxidative stress ( Allgrove et al., 2011 ; Davison et al., 2012 ). Furthermore, in relation to exercise, the ingestion of CF may improve sprint performance by

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Filip Sabol, Jozo Grgic, and Pavle Mikulic

, there is a scarcity of studies that have examined the effects of caffeine ingestion while using both upper- and lower-body exercise tests in the same group of participants. In our recent study, 3 we reported that caffeine ingestion in the dose of 6 mg·kg −1 enhances the medicine ball throw distance (a

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Terri Graham-Paulson, Claudio Perret, and Victoria Goosey-Tolfrey

subjective improvement in performance, but he was unsure whether it was the correct dosage. The maximum dose was set at 6 mg/kg CAF as higher doses have been linked to side effects, such as jitters, increased heart rate, and impaired performance ( Graham & Spriet, 1995 ). The visits followed a single

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Samuel R. Heaselgrave, Joe Blacker, Benoit Smeuninx, James McKendry, and Leigh Breen

/strength have been postulated: (1) a dose–response relationship where gradual increases in weekly RT volume lead to a greater increase muscle mass and strength, 6 (2) an inverted-U relationship whereby increasing weekly RT volume beyond a certain threshold negatively impacts skeletal muscle accretion, 12 and

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Brianna J. Stubbs, Pete J. Cox, Tom Kirk, Rhys D. Evans, and Kieran Clarke

Study Design Incidence of GI symptoms after exogenous ketone drinks was investigated in three independent studies (Figure  1 ). First, a randomized, four-arm, cross-over study with equal amounts of βHB as KME or KS at two doses, ingested by healthy volunteers at rest (Study 1, n  = 15; Stubbs et