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Methods to Estimate Energy Expenditure, Physical Activity, and Sedentary Time in Pregnant Women: A Validation Study Using Doubly Labeled Water

Saud Abdulaziz Alomairah, Signe de Place Knudsen, Caroline Borup Roland, Ida-Marie Hergel, Stig Molsted, Tine D. Clausen, Ellen Løkkegaard, Jane M. Bendix, Ralph Maddison, Marie Löf, Jakob Eg Larsen, Gerrit van Hall, and Bente Stallknecht

doubly labeled water (DLW) technique in pregnant women ( Sattler et al., 2018 ). DLW is expensive but is considered the “gold standard” for measuring TEE in free-living humans. The technique is based on the principle that the disappearance rate of the heavier stable isotope of hydrogen (H 2 ) reflects

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Assessment of Energy Expenditure of a Professional Goalkeeper From the English Premier League Using the Doubly Labeled Water Method

Liam Anderson, Graeme L. Close, Ryland Morgans, Catherine Hambly, John Roger Speakman, Barry Drust, and James P. Morton

to quantify the EE of a professional GK of the English Premier League (EPL) using the doubly labeled water method (DLW). The use of this technique is advantageous as it takes into account the total daily EE of players therefore encompassing those energetic actions (eg, diving, jumping, isometric

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An Observational Case Series Measuring the Energy Expenditure of Elite Tennis Players During Competition and Training by Using Doubly Labeled Water

Daniel G. Ellis, John Speakman, Catherine Hambly, James P. Morton, Graeme L. Close, and Tim F. Donovan

(3824 kcal·d −1 ) in an elite female player (career high-ranking WTA top 5). Such observations were the first direct assessment of energy expenditure of elite players using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method and position tennis as a highly energetically demanding sport (eg, 84 kcal·kg −1 and 71 kcal

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Application of the Doubly Labeled Water Technique for Studying Total Energy Expenditure in Young Children: A Review

Michael I. Goran

The doubly labeled water technique represents an unobtrusive and noninvasive means to measure total daily energy expenditure in free-living human subjects who are unaware that energy expenditure is being measured. When combined with measurement of resting energy expenditure, the doubly labeled water technique can also be used to estimate energy expenditure related to physical activity. The relatively recent availability of the doubly labeled water technique in humans has led to several advances in the fundamental understanding of whole body energy metabolism in several important areas. The purpose of this paper is to review the areas in which the doubly labeled water technique has specifically advanced our understanding of whole-body energy metabolism in young children.

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Energy Requirement Assessment in Japanese Table Tennis Players Using the Doubly Labeled Water Method

Hiroyuki Sagayama, Genki Hamaguchi, Makiko Toguchi, Mamiko Ichikawa, Yosuke Yamada, Naoyuki Ebine, Yasuki Higaki, and Hiroaki Tanaka

Total daily energy expenditure (TEE) and physical activity level (PAL) are important for adequate nutritional management in athletes. The PAL of table tennis has been estimated to about 2.0: it is categorized as a moderateactivity sport (4.0 metabolic equivalents [METs]) in the Compendium of Physical Activities. However, modern table tennis makes high physiological demands. The aims of the current study were to examine (1) TEE and PAL of competitive table tennis players and (2) the physiological demands of various types of table tennis practice. In Experiment 1, we measured TEE and PAL in 10 Japanese college competitive table tennis players (aged 19.9 ± 1.1 years) using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method during training and with an exercise training log and self-reported energy intake. TEE was 15.5 ± 1.9 MJ·day-1 (3695 ± 449 kcal·day-1); PAL was 2.53 ± 0.25; and the average training duration was 181 ± 38 min·day-1. In Experiment 2, we measured METs of five different practices in seven college competition players (20.6 ± 1.2 years). Three practices without footwork were 4.5–5.2 METs, and two practices with footwork were 9.5–11.5 METs. Table tennis practices averaged 7.1 ± 3.2 METS demonstrating similarities with other vigorous racket sports. In conclusion the current Compendium of Physical Activities underestimates the physiological demands of table tennis practice for competition; the estimated energy requirement should be based on DLW method data.

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The Short Questionnaire to Assess Health-Enhancing (SQUASH) Physical Activity in Adolescents: A Validation Using Doubly Labeled Water

Nerissa Campbell, Anca Gaston, Casey Gray, Elaine Rush, Ralph Maddison, and Harry Prapavessis

Background:

Accurate assessment of physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) among adolescents is important for surveillance, evaluating interventions, and understanding the relation between energy balance and normal physiological and behavioral growth and development. The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of the Short Questionnaire to Assess Health-Enhancing Physical Activity (SQUASH)13 for measuring PAEE among adolescents.

Methods:

The participants were seventeen adolescents (9 females; Mean age = 17.53; SD = 0.62). Energy expenditure was measured during a 9-day period with doubly labeled water (DLW). The SQUASH was self-administered on the morning of the 10th day and assessed commuting activities, leisure time activities, household activities, and activities at work and school over the previous 9 days.

Results:

A Bland-Altman plot indicated that the SQUASH underestimated PAEE compared with DLW by a mean difference of 126 kcal·d−1 (95% limits of agreement: –1,207 to 1,459 kcal·d−1), representative of a 10% underestimation. The Spearman rank order correlation coefficient showed there was a significant association between the SQUASH and DLW (r = .50, P = .04), for estimating PAEE.

Conclusion:

When using a sample of highly active adolescents, the SQUASH is a valid self-report tool for measuring PAEE at the group and individual rank order level.

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Energy Expenditure in Individuals With Spinal Cord Injury Quantified by Doubly Labeled Water and a Multi-Sensor Armband

Ricardo A. Tanhoffer, Aldre I.P. Tanhoffer, Jacqueline Raymond, Nathan A. Johnson, Andrew P. Hills, and Glen M. Davis

Background:

The objective of this study was to determine whether doubly labeled water (DLW) and a multi-sensor armband (SWA) could detect the variation in energy expenditure incurred by a period of increased exercise (EXE) versus a period of high sedentary activity (SED), in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI).

Methods:

Eight participants with SCI were submitted to 2 testing periods of energy expenditure assessment: 1) a 14-day phase during which sedentary living conditions were imposed and 2) a 14-day phase during which an exercise training intervention was employed. For each phase, total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) and physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) were measured by DLW and SWA.

Results:

Mean TDEE assessed by DLW, was significantly higher during EXE versus SED (11,605 ± 2151 kJ·day-1 and 10,069 ± 2310 kJ·day-1). PAEE predicted by DLW was also significantly higher during EXE versus SED (5422 ± 2240 kJ·day-1 and 3855 ± 2496 kJ·day-1). SWA-predicted PAEE significantly underestimated PAEE measured by the DLW during SED and EXE.

Conclusion:

DLW is sensitive to detect variation in within-individual energy expenditure during voluntary increase in physical activity in individuals with SCI. SWA failed to detect statistically significant variations in energy expenditure between periods of high versus low activity in SCI.

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Total Energy Expenditure, Physical Activity Level, and Water Turnover of Collegiate Dinghy Sailors in a Training Camp

Hiroyuki Sagayama, Makiko Toguchi, Jun Yasukata, Kazunari Yonaha, Yasuki Higaki, and Hiroaki Tanaka

expenditure (TEE) and physical activity level (PAL) accurately using a gold standard, such as the doubly labeled water (DLW) method ( Schoeller et al., 1986 ). An earlier study estimated that TEE was about 19.3 MJ/day (4,609 kcal/day) for offshore racing over 13 days using DLW methods measurements ( Branth et

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Total Energy Expenditure and Nutritional Intake in Continuous Multiday Ultramarathon Events

Andrew W. Best, Amanda McGrosky, Zane Swanson, Rebecca Rimbach, Katie McConaughy, Joe McConaughy, Cara Ocobock, and Herman Pontzer

measuring TEE (in kilocalories per day), the doubly labeled water (DLW) method ( Speakman, 1997 ) to assess TEE in ultramarathons and long-distance FKTs. Together, these studies report TEE from 17 athletes: 10 from the Western States 100 mile ( Ruby et al., 2015 ), one from a 7-month 14,964-km run in

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Total Energy Expenditure and ad Libitum Fluid/Nutrient Intake During a 24-Hour Mountain-Bike Event: A Case Study

Patrick Dodds, Dale Schoeller, Tim Shriver, and Brent Ruby

The measurement of total energy expenditure (TEE) outside of the laboratory enables a more comprehensive understanding of the human ceiling for extended work and competition. Doubly labeled water remains the gold standard for quantifying the extended (several hours to days) TEE for humans in free