The aims of this study were to compare drag in swimming children and adults, quantify technique using the technique drag index (TDI), and use the Froude number (Fr) to study whether children or adults reach hull speed at maximal velocity (v max). Active and passive drag was measured by the perturbation method and a velocity decay method, respectively, including 9 children aged 11.7 ± 0.8 and 13 adults aged 21.4 ± 3.7. The children had significantly lower active (k AD) and passive drag factor (k PD) compared with the adults. TDI (k AD/k PD) could not detect any differences in swimming technique between the two groups, owing to the adults swimming maximally at a higher Fr, increasing the wave drag component, and masking the effect of better technique. The children were found not to reach hull speed at v max, and their Fr were 0.37 ± 0.01 vs. the adults 0.42 ± 0.01, indicating adults’ larger wave-making component of resistance at v max compared with children. Fr is proposed as an evaluation tool for competitive swimmers.
Per-Ludvik Kjendlie and Robert Keig Stallman
Paul F.J. Merkes, Paolo Menaspà and Chris R. Abbiss
However, studies have also shown that peak power output is not the only important factor to success. 2 Indeed, a cyclist’s velocity is likely to be a much more important factor in the outcome of road cycling sprints. Cycling velocity is the result of power output, aerodynamic drag (CdA), road
Erik Spring, Sauli Savolainen, Jari Erkkilä, Tuomo Hämäläinen and Pekka Pihkala
The drag area CDA of three male cross-country skiers as a function of their velocity was determined from their retardation when they were gliding on roller-skis over a horizontal smooth asphalt surface in a subway. The results show that CDA is a slightly decreasing function of the skier’s velocity in the velocity range 5–11 m/s. The drag area of a skier was found to be 0.27 ± 0.03 m2 in a semi-squatting posture and 0.65 ± 0.05 m2 in an upright posture for an average size skier (weight 80 kg, height 1.75 m). The difference in the drag area between a normal outdoor suit and a tight-fitting ski suit was found to be as much as 30%. A skier keeping pace with a skier ahead will gain a reduction in drag of about 25 %. The leading skier in this study was found to have his drag reduced by approximately 3 % compared to what it would be if there were no skier pacing up with him. The skier behind hinders the skier ahead from generating to a full extent the vortexes behind himself or herself. These reductions are of course strongly dependent on the distance between the skiers.
Danielle P. Formosa, Mark Gregory Leigh Sayers and Brendan Burkett
This study explored and quantified gender differences in passive drag and instantaneous net drag force profile for elite backstroke swimmers (FINA points 938 ± 71). Nine female and ten male backstroke swimmers completed eight maximum speed trials. During the passive drag condition participants were towed at the speed achieved within the maximum effort backstroke swimming trials, while holding a supine stationary streamline position. The remaining trials, swimmers performed their natural swimming stroke, while attached to an assisted towing device. Male participant’s passive (P < .001) and mean net drag force (P < .001) were significantly higher compared with female participants. In addition, there were no significant differences by gender between either the minimum or maximum net drag forces produced during the left and right arm strokes. Instantaneous net drag force profiles demonstrated differences within and between individuals and genders. The swimmers who recorded the fastest speed also recorded the smallest difference in net drag force fluctuations. The instantaneous net drag force profile within elite backstroke swimming provides further insight into stroke technique of this sport.
Daniel A. Marinho, Victor M. Reis, Francisco B. Alves, João P. Vilas-Boas, Leandro Machado, António J. Silva and Abel I. Rouboa
This study used a computational fluid dynamics methodology to analyze the effect of body position on the drag coefficient during submerged gliding in swimming. The k-epsilon turbulent model implemented in the commercial code Fluent and applied to the flow around a three-dimensional model of a male adult swimmer was used. Two common gliding positions were investigated: a ventral position with the arms extended at the front, and a ventral position with the arms placed along side the trunk. The simulations were applied to flow velocities of between 1.6 and 2.0 m·s−1, which are typical of elite swimmers when gliding underwater at the start and in the turns. The gliding position with the arms extended at the front produced lower drag coefficients than with the arms placed along the trunk. We therefore recommend that swimmers adopt the arms in front position rather than the arms beside the trunk position during the underwater gliding.
Mont Hubbard and Christy D. Bergman
The theory of crossflow aerodynamics is used to estimate the effect of thrower-induced vibrations on javelin mean lift and drag. Vibrations of all modes increase both lift and drag from the vibration-free condition. Percentage in-creases in lift and drag are largest at small mean angles of attack, large vibrational amplitudes, and large relative wind speeds. Thus the consequences of vibration effects on aerodynamics may be most significant for elite throwers.
Huub M. Toussaint, Michiel de Looze, Bas Van Rossem, Marijke Leijdekkers and Hans Dignum
In this study the relationship between morphological data and active drag, as measured on the MAD system (system to measure active drag), and the effect of a 2.5-year period of growth was examined in a group of children (mean age at the start of the study, 12.9 years). During this period the children showed a mean increase in height from 1.52 to 1.69 m, and in weight from 40.0 to 54.7 kg. Also the body cross-sectional area (Ap), previously reported to relate strongly to drag in a group of adult swimmers, showed an increase in size of 16%. However, the drag did not change; the mean drag force for all subjects swimming at 1.25 m•s−1 was 30.1 N (±2.37) in 1985 and 30.8 N (±4.50) in 1988. The increase in height resulted in a decrease in the Froude Number (Fr) and hence in a decrease in wave-making resistance. Furthermore, form indices derived from ship-building technology demonstrated changes that indicated a more streamlined body form. Therefore it was concluded that during growth a complex process takes place in which different factors determining drag, such as height, body shape (Cd), and Ap, change in directions, having opposite effects on drag.
Vishveshwar R. Mantha, António J. Silva, Daniel A. Marinho and Abel I. Rouboa
The aim of the current study was to analyze the hydrodynamics of three kayaks: 97-kg-class, single-rower, flatwater sports competition, full-scale design evolution models (Nelo K1 Vanquish LI, LII, and LIII) of M.A.R. Kayaks Lda., Portugal, which are among the fastest frontline kayaks. The effect of kayak design transformation on kayak hydrodynamics performance was studied by the application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The steady-state CFD simulations where performed by application of the k-omega turbulent model and the volume-of-fluid method to obtain two-phase flow around the kayaks. The numerical result of viscous, pressure drag, and coefficients along with wave drag at individual average race velocities was obtained. At an average velocity of 4.5 m/s, the reduction in drag was 29.4% for the design change from LI to LII and 15.4% for the change from LII to LIII, thus demonstrating and reaffirming a progressive evolution in design. In addition, the knowledge of drag hydrodynamics presented in the current study facilitates the estimation of the paddling effort required from the athlete during progression at different race velocities. This study finds an application during selection and training, where a coach can select the kayak with better hydrodynamics.
Caroline Barelle, Anne Ruby and Michel Tavernier
Aerodynamic properties are one of the factors that determine speed performance in Alpine skiing. Many studies have examined the consequences of this factor in downhill skiing, and the impact of postural modifications on speed is now well established. To date, only wind tunnel tests have enabled one to measure aerodynamic drag values (a major component of the aerodynamic force in Alpine skiing). Yet such tests are incompatible with the constraints of a regular and accurate follow-up of training programs. The present study proposes an experimental model that permits one to determine a skier's aerodynamic drag coefficient (SCx) based on posture. Experimental SCx measurements made in a wind tunnel are matched with the skier's postural parameters. The accuracy of the model was determined by comparing calculated drag values with measurements observed in a wind tunnel for different postures. For postures corresponding to an optimal aerodynamic penetration (speed position), the uncertainty was 13%. Although this model does not permit an accurate comparison between two skiers, it does satisfactorily account for variations observed in the aerodynamic drag of the same skier in different postures. During Alpine ski training sessions and races, this model may help coaches assess the gain or loss in time induced by modifications in aerodynamic drag corresponding to different postures. It may also be used in other sports to help determine whether the aerodynamic force has a significant impact on performance.
Eadric Bressel, Gerald Smith, Andrew Miller and Dennis Dolny
Context: Quantification of the magnitudes of fluid resistance provided by water jets (currents) and their effect on energy expenditure during aquatic-treadmill walking is lacking in the scientific literature. Objective: To quantify the effect of water-jet intensity on jet velocity, drag force, and oxygen uptake (VO2) during aquatic-treadmill walking. Design: Descriptive and repeated measures. Setting: Athletic training facility. Participants, Interventions, and Measures: Water-jet velocities were measured using an electromagnetic flow meter at 9 different jet intensities (0-80% maximum). Drag forces on 3 healthy subjects with a range of frontal areas (600, 880, and 1250 cm2) were measured at each jet intensity with a force transducer and line attached to the subject, who was suspended in water. Five healthy participants (age 37.2 ± 11.3 y, weight 611 ± 96 N) subsequently walked (~1.03 m/s or 2.3 miles/h) on an aquatic treadmill at the 9 different jet intensities while expired gases were collected to estimate VO2. Results: For the range of jet intensities, water-jet velocities and drag forces were 0-1.2 m/s and 0-47 N, respectively. VO2 increased nonlinearly, with values ranging from 11.4 ± 1.0 to 22.2 ± 3.8 mL × kg-1 × min-1 for 0-80% of jet maximum, respectively. Conclusions: This study presented methodology for quantifying water-jet flow velocities and drag forces in an aquatic-treadmill environment and examined how different jet intensities influenced VO2 during walking. Quantification of these variables provides a fundamental understanding of aquatic-jet use and its effect on VO2. In practice, these results indicate that VO2 may be substantially increased on an aquatic treadmill while maintaining a relatively slow walking speed.