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Ian Rollo, Lewis James, Louise Croft and Clyde Williams

The purpose of the current study was to investigate the influence of ingesting a carbohydrate-electrolyte (CHO-E) beverage ad libitum or as a prescribed volume on 10-mile run performance and gastrointestinal (GI) discomfort. Nine male recreational runners completed the 10-mile run under the following 3 conditions: no drinking (ND; 0 ml, 0 g CHO), ad libitum drinking (AD; 315 ± 123 ml, 19 ± 7 g CHO), and prescribed drinking (PD; 1,055 ± 90 ml, 64 ± 5 g CHO). During the AD and PD trials, drinks were provided on completion of Miles 2, 4, 6, and 8. Running performance, speed (km/hr), and 10-mile run time were assessed using a global positioning satellite system. The runners’ ratings of perceived exertion and GI comfort were recorded on completion of each lap of the 10-mile run. There was a significant difference (p < .10) in performance times for the 10-mile race for the ND, AD, and PD trials, which were 72:05 ± 3:36, 71:14 ± 3:35, and 72:12 ± 3.53 min:s, respectively (p = .094). Ratings of GI comfort were reduced during the PD trial in comparison with both AD and ND trials. In conclusion, runners unaccustomed to habitually drinking CHO-E beverages during training improved their 10-mile race performance with AD drinking a CHO-E beverage, in comparison with drinking a prescribed volume of the same beverage or no drinking.

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Byron L. Zamboanga, Nathan T. Kearns, Janine V. Olthuis, Heidemarie Blumenthal and Renee M. Cloutier

Drinking games participation is common among both adolescents and emerging adults, and has been linked to heavy alcohol use and negative alcohol-related consequences (for reviews, see Zamboanga et al., 2014 ; Zamboanga, Tomaso, et al., 2016 ). Research further suggests that particular motives for

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Matthew S. Hickey, David L. Costill and Scott W. Trappe

This study investigated the influence of drink carbonation and carbohydrate content on ad libitum drinking behavior and body fluid and electrolyte responses during prolonged exercise in the heat. Eight competitive male runners completed three 2-hr treadmill runs at 60% VO2max in an environmental chamber maintained at 30 C° and 40% RH. Three test drinks were used: 8% carbohydrate, low carbonation (8%-C); 8% carbohydrate, noncarbonated (8%-NC), and water (0%-NC). Blood samples were taken preexercise (0), at 60 and 120 min of exercise, and at 60 min of recovery (+60 min). The data suggest that while reports of heartburn tend to be higher on 8% carbohydrate drinks than on 0%-NC, this does not appear to be a function of drink carbonation. Similarly, the increased frequency of heartbum did not significantly reduce fluid consumption either during exercise or during a 60-min recovery period. Importantly, no differences were observed between fluid and electrolyte, or thermoregulatory responses to the three sport drinks. Thus, consumption of low-carbonation beverages does not appear to significantly influence drinking behavior or the related physiological responses during prolonged exercise in the heat.

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Frank B. Butts

Martens, O’Connor, & Beck (2006) reported problematic drinking on college campuses to be a considerable concern and that athletes have more binge drinking episodes and alcohol-related problems than non-athlete students. Wechsler, Davenport, Dowdall, Grossman, & Zanakos (1997) reported that athletes in NCAA Division I have the most alcohol related issues as evidenced by 29% of male and 24% of female athletes reported binge drinking three or more times in a two week period. To address this concern, this study incorporated a 12-month, NCAA (2008) Choices alcohol responsibility program at a NCAA II university which involved peer mentoring, education, and alcohol-free activities. The results indicated a significant decline in binge drinking and associated problems among athletes after treatment.

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Brianna J. Stubbs, Pete J. Cox, Tom Kirk, Rhys D. Evans and Kieran Clarke

ketone drinks has grown ( Egan & D’Agostino, 2016 ). These drinks rapidly increase blood ketone concentrations to achieve ketosis (blood d -βHB >0.5 mM) without dietary modification ( Stubbs et al., 2017 ). Two classes of exogenous ketone compounds exist: ketone esters and ketone salts (KS). Ketone

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Liam Sayer, Nidia Rodriguez-Sanchez, Paola Rodriguez-Giustiniani, Christopher Irwin, Danielle McCartney, Gregory R. Cox, Stuart D.R. Galloway and Ben Desbrow

Individuals typically do not consume enough fluid during exercise to counteract sweat losses, producing a postexercise state of body water deficit (i.e., dehydration; Garth & Burke, 2013 ). As a result, individuals are encouraged to drink fluid during recovery to reinstate total body water balance

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Mark Elisabeth Theodorus Willems, Mehmet Akif Şahin and Matthew David Cook

effect of traditional brewed green tea drinks with leaves on fat oxidation during exercise. Matcha green tea powder contains catechins and caffeine, and when it is consumed as a drink, it ensures an oral intake of all the green tea leaf components. In addition, the process of powdering green tea leaves

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Ben Desbrow, Katelyn Barnes, Gregory R. Cox, Elizaveta Iudakhina, Danielle McCartney, Sierra Skepper, Caroline Young and Chris Irwin

undesirable outcomes. For instance, we have recently demonstrated that ad libitum access to calorie-containing beverages (i.e., carbohydrate [CHO]-electrolyte [sports] beverages and milk-based drinks) in the laboratory increases acute energy intake (in both males and females; Campagnolo et al., 2017

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Susan W. Yeargin, Sean M. Bowman, Lindsey E. Eberman and Jeffrey E. Edwards

During physical activities, youth consume fluids from various delivery methods that may influence hydration behaviors. The purpose of this study was to determine the drinking efficiency of these different methods. Children’s fluid intake was more efficient when drinking from a cup compared with a bottle with no mouth contact and a water fountain, but not compared with a bottle with direct mouth contact. Drinking from the water fountain was the least effective compared with all other methods. Children drink more efficiently when using cups and water bottles with direct mouth contact as the delivery method compared with methods with no mouth contact.

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Davy Vancampfort, Brendon Stubbs, Mats Hallgren, Andreas Lundin, James Mugisha and Ai Koyanagi

evidence that hazardous drinking habits have increased steadily among older adults ( Hallgren, Högberg, & Andréasson, 2009 ). The threshold for risky or “hazardous” consumption arising from regular alcohol use is set by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) as more than seven