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Ben Desbrow, Sally Anderson, Jennifer Barrett, Elissa Rao and Mark Hargreaves

The effects of a commercial sports drink on performance in high-intensity cycling was investigated. Nine well-trained subjects were asked to complete a set amount of work as fast as possible (time trial) following 24 h of dietary (subjects were provided with food, energy 57.4 ± 2.4 kcal/kg and carbohydrate 9.1 ± 0.4 g/kg) and exercise control. During exercise, subjects were provided with 14 mL/kg of either 6% carbohydrate-electrolyte (CHO-E) solution or carbohydrate-free placebo (P). Results showed that subjects’ performances did not greatly improve (time, 62:34 ± 6:44 min:sec (CHO-E) vs. 62:40 ± 5:35 min:sec (P); average power output, 283.0 ± 25.0 W (CHO-E) vs. 282.9 ± 29.3 W (P), P > 0.05) while consuming the sports drink. It was concluded that CHO-E consumption throughout a 1-h time trial, following a pre-exercise dietary regimen designed to optimize glucose availability, did not improve time or power output to a greater degree than P in well-trained cyclists.

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G. Patrick Lambert, Timothy L. Bleiler, Ray-Tai Chang, Alan K. Johnson and Carl V. Gisolfi

Eight male runners performed four 2-hr treadmill runs at 65% ~ 0 , m a x in the heat (35"C, 15-20% RH). A different beverage was offered each trial and subjects drank ad libitum for 2 min every 20 min. The beverages were, 6% carbohydrate (CHO) solution (NC 6), 6% carbonated-CHO solution (C 6), 10% CHO solution (NC 10), and 10% carbonated-CHO solution (C 10). NC 6 and C 6 contained 4% sucrose and 2% glucose. NC 10 and C 10 contained high fructose corn syrup. Subjects drank more NC 6 than C 6. Fluid consumption was not different among other trials. During all trials, volume consumed and %ΔPV declined while heart rate and rectal temperature increased (p<0.05). No significant differences occurred between beverages for these variables. Percent body weight lost was greater (p<0.05) for the C 10 trial compared to the NC 6 trial. Neither sweat rate, percent fluid replaced, plasma [Na+], [K+], osmolality, percent of drink volume emptied from the stomach, or glucose concentration differed among trials. Plasma [K+] and osmolality increased (p<0.05) over time. Ratings of fullness and thirst were not different among beverages, although both perceptions increased (p<0.05) with time. It is concluded that (a) carbonation decreased the consumption of the 6% CHO beverage; (b) fluid homeostasis and thermoregulation were unaffected by the solutions ingested; and (c) fluid consumption decreased with time, while ratings of fullness and thirst increased.

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Byron L. Zamboanga, Nathan T. Kearns, Janine V. Olthuis, Heidemarie Blumenthal and Renee M. Cloutier

Drinking games participation is common among both adolescents and emerging adults, and has been linked to heavy alcohol use and negative alcohol-related consequences (for reviews, see Zamboanga et al., 2014 ; Zamboanga, Tomaso, et al., 2016 ). Research further suggests that particular motives for

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Matthew S. Hickey, David L. Costill and Scott W. Trappe

This study investigated the influence of drink carbonation and carbohydrate content on ad libitum drinking behavior and body fluid and electrolyte responses during prolonged exercise in the heat. Eight competitive male runners completed three 2-hr treadmill runs at 60% VO2max in an environmental chamber maintained at 30 C° and 40% RH. Three test drinks were used: 8% carbohydrate, low carbonation (8%-C); 8% carbohydrate, noncarbonated (8%-NC), and water (0%-NC). Blood samples were taken preexercise (0), at 60 and 120 min of exercise, and at 60 min of recovery (+60 min). The data suggest that while reports of heartburn tend to be higher on 8% carbohydrate drinks than on 0%-NC, this does not appear to be a function of drink carbonation. Similarly, the increased frequency of heartbum did not significantly reduce fluid consumption either during exercise or during a 60-min recovery period. Importantly, no differences were observed between fluid and electrolyte, or thermoregulatory responses to the three sport drinks. Thus, consumption of low-carbonation beverages does not appear to significantly influence drinking behavior or the related physiological responses during prolonged exercise in the heat.

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Frank B. Butts

Martens, O’Connor, & Beck (2006) reported problematic drinking on college campuses to be a considerable concern and that athletes have more binge drinking episodes and alcohol-related problems than non-athlete students. Wechsler, Davenport, Dowdall, Grossman, & Zanakos (1997) reported that athletes in NCAA Division I have the most alcohol related issues as evidenced by 29% of male and 24% of female athletes reported binge drinking three or more times in a two week period. To address this concern, this study incorporated a 12-month, NCAA (2008) Choices alcohol responsibility program at a NCAA II university which involved peer mentoring, education, and alcohol-free activities. The results indicated a significant decline in binge drinking and associated problems among athletes after treatment.

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Brianna J. Stubbs, Pete J. Cox, Tom Kirk, Rhys D. Evans and Kieran Clarke

ketone drinks has grown ( Egan & D’Agostino, 2016 ). These drinks rapidly increase blood ketone concentrations to achieve ketosis (blood d -βHB >0.5 mM) without dietary modification ( Stubbs et al., 2017 ). Two classes of exogenous ketone compounds exist: ketone esters and ketone salts (KS). Ketone

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Liam Sayer, Nidia Rodriguez-Sanchez, Paola Rodriguez-Giustiniani, Christopher Irwin, Danielle McCartney, Gregory R. Cox, Stuart D.R. Galloway and Ben Desbrow

Individuals typically do not consume enough fluid during exercise to counteract sweat losses, producing a postexercise state of body water deficit (i.e., dehydration; Garth & Burke, 2013 ). As a result, individuals are encouraged to drink fluid during recovery to reinstate total body water balance

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Mark Elisabeth Theodorus Willems, Mehmet Akif Şahin and Matthew David Cook

effect of traditional brewed green tea drinks with leaves on fat oxidation during exercise. Matcha green tea powder contains catechins and caffeine, and when it is consumed as a drink, it ensures an oral intake of all the green tea leaf components. In addition, the process of powdering green tea leaves

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Ben Desbrow, Katelyn Barnes, Gregory R. Cox, Elizaveta Iudakhina, Danielle McCartney, Sierra Skepper, Caroline Young and Chris Irwin

undesirable outcomes. For instance, we have recently demonstrated that ad libitum access to calorie-containing beverages (i.e., carbohydrate [CHO]-electrolyte [sports] beverages and milk-based drinks) in the laboratory increases acute energy intake (in both males and females; Campagnolo et al., 2017

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Susan W. Yeargin, Sean M. Bowman, Lindsey E. Eberman and Jeffrey E. Edwards

During physical activities, youth consume fluids from various delivery methods that may influence hydration behaviors. The purpose of this study was to determine the drinking efficiency of these different methods. Children’s fluid intake was more efficient when drinking from a cup compared with a bottle with no mouth contact and a water fountain, but not compared with a bottle with direct mouth contact. Drinking from the water fountain was the least effective compared with all other methods. Children drink more efficiently when using cups and water bottles with direct mouth contact as the delivery method compared with methods with no mouth contact.