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Siobhan K. Fitzpatrick and Janine V. Olthuis

alcohol) and drinking motives (i.e., reasons for drinking). Social norms may include injunctive (i.e., perceptions about others’ approval of alcohol use) or descriptive norms (i.e., perceptions of others’ alcohol use). This theory may help explain why SAs engage in heavy alcohol use. This is particularly

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Byron L. Zamboanga, Nathan T. Kearns, Janine V. Olthuis, Heidemarie Blumenthal, and Renee M. Cloutier

) developed the Drinking Motives Questionnaire (DMQ) which measures four distinct motives for alcohol use: social (e.g., to become more social), enhancement (e.g., to get high/buzzed), conformity (e.g., to fit in), and coping (e.g., to forget about one’s worries/problems). Research has linked particular

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Graig M. Chow, Matthew D. Bird, Stinne Soendergaard, and Yanyun Yang

on performance and student-athlete drinking motives, little is known about how coaches prevent and manage their student-athletes’ alcohol use. There are several theoretical explanations supporting a coach’s influence on their athletes’ drinking behaviors and the mechanism in which coaches’ attitudes