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Justine Chatterton, Trent A. Petrie, Keke L. Schuler and Camilo Ruggero

-sport sample of 203 male collegiate athletes, Petrie et al. ( 2014 ) examined the relationship of body image, dietary restraint, negative affect, and drive for muscularity to bulimic symptomatology. Although they found that engaging in muscularity behaviors (MB; e.g., lifting weights) and restricting caloric

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Arnaldo Zelli, Fabio Lucidi and Luca Mallia

This study examined the relative ways in which muscularity and thinness concerns longitudinally influence adolescents’ intentions to use doping substances. It was hypothesized that muscularity and thinness exert their effects on doping intentions by promoting endorsement of positive attitudes toward doping use in male and female adolescents and across different levels of sport involvement. To test this hypothesis, nearly 900 high school adolescents provided questionnaire data on two separate occasions during an academic year. On average, boys, as well as boys and girls who practice some sport, had relatively strong concerns about muscularity, whereas girls showed relatively strong thinness concerns. Boys also expressed more positive attitudes about doping than did girls. Structural equation modeling showed that muscularity and thinness have direct effects on adolescents’ intentions to engage in doping and that muscularity, but not thinness, partly exerts its effects through the endorsement of positive attitudes toward doping.

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Andrea S. Hartmann, Florian Steenbergen, Silja Vocks, Dirk Büsch and Manuel Waldorf

pathological symptoms in women. The findings showed that competitive female bodybuilding, i.e., a high drive for muscularity, is associated with symptoms of exercise dependence, dietary behavior, supplement use ( Hale, Diehl, Weaver, & Briggs, 2013 ), body dissatisfaction and eating disorder symptoms

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Trent A. Petrie, Christy Greenleaf, Jennifer E. Carter and Justine J. Reel

Few studies have been conducted examining male athletes and eating disorders, even though the sport environment may increase their risk. Thus, little information exists regarding the relationship of putative risk factors to eating disorders in this group. To address this issue, we examined the relationship of eating disorder classification to the risk factors of body image concerns (including drive for muscularity), negative affect, weight pressures, and disordered eating behaviors. Male college athletes (N= 199) from three different NCAA Division I universities participated. Only two athletes were classified with an eating disorder, though 33 (16.6%) and 164 (82.4%), respectively, were categorized as symptomatic and asymptomatic. Multivariate analyses revealed that eating disorder classification was unrelated to the majority of the risk factors, although the eating disorder group (i.e., clinical and symptomatic) did report greater fear of becoming fat, more weight pressures from TV and from magazines, and higher levels of stress than the asymptomatic athletes. In addition, the eating disorder group had higher scores on the Bulimia Test-Revised (Thelen, Mintz, & Vander Wal, 1996), which validated the Questionnaire for Eating Disorder Diagnosis (Mintz, O’Halloran, Mulholland, & Schneider, 1997) as a measure of eating disorders with male athletes. These findings suggest that variables that have been supported as risk factors among women in general, and female athletes in particular, may not apply as strongly, or at all, to male athletes.

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Hayley Perelman, Joanna Buscemi, Elizabeth Dougherty and Alissa Haedt-Matt

, & Tovee, 2009 ; Varnes et al., 2013 ). Female athletes are often the focus of research on body dissatisfaction, although it is experienced by both male and female athletes. Women tend to experience pressure to maintain a specific body weight and shape, while men tend to experience a drive for muscularity

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Kim Gammage, Rachel Arnold, Nicole Bolter, Angela Coppola, Thomas Curran, Lori Dithurbide, Karl Erickson, Larkin Lamarche, Sean Locke, Luc Martin and Kathleen Wilson

Fitspiration images and 102 posted travel images) completed measures of drive for thinness, drive for muscularity, bulimia, and body dissatisfaction, as well as compulsive exercise. Results showed that the Fitspiration group (which was slightly younger) reported higher drive for thinness and bulimia, as well

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Shannon S. C. Herrick and Lindsay R. Duncan

methods (eg, compulsive exercise). 20 , 26 , 30 , 43 , 44 Body dissatisfaction caused by the inability to conform to hegemonic ideals of thinness appears to be a motivating factor for these weight-control behaviors. 43 Muscularity A drive for muscularity among SMM was reported in 5 articles (26%). 20

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Justine J. Reel, Leslie Podlog, Lindsey Hamilton, Lindsey Greviskes, Dana K. Voelker and Cara Gray

were excluded from the study. Although disordered eating and injury are common among male dancers, they were excluded from the study as their perspectives and interests may differ from women. For instance, the drive for muscularity among male dancers may be contrary to the bodily aesthetic expected of

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Renee Engeln, Margaret Shavlik and Colleen Daly

, 30 , 348 – 357 . doi:10.1111/j.1471-6402.2006.00310.x 10.1111/j.1471-6402.2006.00310.x McCreary , D.R. ( 2007 ). The drive for muscularity scale: Description, psychometrics, and research findings . In J.K. Thompson & G. Cafri (Eds.), The muscular ideal: Psychological, social, and medical

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Dana K. Voelker and Justine J. Reel

the weight pressures in sport scale for male athletes . Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 15 ( 2 ), 170 – 180 . doi:10.1037/a0031762 10.1037/a0031762 Galli , N. , Petrie , T.A. , Reel , J.J. , Greenleaf , C. , & Carter , J. ( 2015 ). Psychosocial predictors of drive for muscularity in