& Sanderson, 2015 ; Schwartz & Vogan, 2017 ). One such example of an athlete circumventing traditional media is the press conference Maria Sharapova live-streamed on her website, mariasharapova.com, on March 7, 2016. Rather than wait for the news to become public that she failed a performance-enhancing drug
Travis R. Bell and Karen L. Hartman
Ira Jacobs, Ethan Ruderman, and Mackenzie McLaughlin
A traditional focus of exercise scientists studying the interaction of drugs and exercise has been on the effects of drugs on exercise performance or functional capacity. In contrast, there is limited information available about the effects of exercise on the efficacy of drugs that have been prescribed and ingested for therapeutic reasons. Those requesting the approval for the manufacture, distribution, and sale of new drugs to the public are required to submit evidence of drug effectiveness and safety to drug regulatory bodies. But, there is no associated requirement to include among that evidence the interactions of exercise with drugs. However, the physiological adaptations to acute and chronic exercise are such that there is good reason to suspect that exercise has the potential to significantly influence drug absorption and bioavailability, drug distribution within the body, and drug elimination from the body. This paper reviews the potential for interaction between exercise and pharmacokinetics.
Melissa Evans, Robert Weinberg, and Allen Jackson
The purpose of the present investigation was to explore the psychological factors associated with drug use in a group of college athletes and to compare athlete drug users to nonusers. A questionnaire was given to male (N=377) and female (N=167) Division I college athletes asking them about their use or nonuse of drugs. Frequency, intensity, and duration of use/nonuse of seven drug categories (alcohol, amphetamines, anabolic steroids, barbiturates, cocaine, hallucinogens, and marijuana) were used to divide subjects into categories of high user and low user/nonuser on each of the drugs. Dependent measures included the Profile of Mood States (POMS), the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Test, and questions assessing the stressors athletes experience in their dual role as student-athletes. A MANOVA was conducted to distinguish significant differences between high and low drug users on the dependent variables. Results indicated that alcohol, the most widely used drug, produced the most significant results. Specifically, discriminant analysis revealed high alcohol users (75th percentile) had significantly higher scores on the POMS anger, fatigue, and vigor subscales than did the low alcohol users (25th percentile). In addition, females in the alcohol low user/nonuser group felt more pressure from coaches to perform well than did females in the high user group; for males, the reverse was true. Future research recommendations include using larger subject pools and athletes of different ages and skill levels.
Samantha King, R. Scott Carey, Naila Jinnah, Rob Millington, Andrea Phillipson, Carolyn Prouse, and Matt Ventresca
This paper uses a genealogical approach to explore the conjuncture at which the longstanding but partial and uneasy silence surrounding painkiller use in the National Football League seems increasingly under threat. We historicize and problematize apparently self-evident narratives about painkiller use in contemporary football by interrogating the gendered, racialized and labor-related discourses surrounding Brett Favre’s 1996 admission of a dependency on Vicodin, as well as the latest rash of confessions of misuse by now retired athletes. We argue that these coconstructed and coconstructing moments of noise and silence are part of the same discursive system. This system serves to structure the emerging preoccupation with painkillers in the NFL, with Favre’s admission still working to placate anxieties surrounding the broader drug problems endemic to the league, and failing to disrupt our implicit knowingness about painkiller use, thus reinforcing ongoing cultures of silence and toughness in professional football.
Melvin H. Williams
As nutritional technology advanced, scientists have been able to synthesize and manufacture all known nutrients, and many of their metabolic by-products, essential to human physiology. Many of these substances are theorized to possess ergogenic potential when take in quantities or forms normally not found in typical foods or diets. Research, although limited in most cases, supports the ergogenicity of some nutrients (e.g., creatine) when consumed in substantial amounts, suggesting such nutrients may function as drugs or nutraceuticals. The International Olympic Committee (IOC) doping legislation stipulates that any physiologic substance taken in abnormal quantity with the intention of artificially and unfairly increasing performance should be construed as doping, violating the ethics of sport performance. Given this stipulation, the IOC and other athletic-governing organizations should consider the legality and ethics underlying the use of ergogenic nutraceuticals in sport.
Ray Tricker, David L. Cook, and Rick McGuire
In recent years drug abuse by college athletes has received greater attention. Because of the recognition of the growing problem of drug use in athletics, the new NCAA drug testing policy, and recent deaths of elite athletes, the sport psychologist should be prepared to deal with this issue. In many college settings the sport psychologist may be expected to provide support with counseling or participate in the development of a drug abuse prevention program for student athletes. Therefore sport psychologists need to closely examine the factors that may predispose athletes toward using drugs, understand the role of prevention, and develop a thorough knowledge of positive, viable alternatives to drugs. This article addresses five important issues that relate to drug abuse in college athletics: (a) why athletes are at risk, (b) athletic leadership and its relationship to substance abuse, (c) the role of the sport psychologist, (d) issues related to the effectiveness of drug education for athletes, and (e) recommendations for athlete drug education programs.
Amy B. Cadwallader and Bob Murray
Whenever athletes willfully or accidentally ingest performance-enhancing drugs or other banned substances (such as drugs of abuse), markers of those drugs can be detected in biological samples (e.g., biofluids: urine, saliva, blood); in the case of some drugs, that evidence can be apparent for many weeks following the last exposure to the drug. In addition to the willful use of prohibited drugs, athletes can accidentally ingest banned substances in contaminated dietary supplements or foods and inadvertently fail a drug test that could mean the end of an athletic career and the loss of a good reputation. The proliferation of performance-enhancing drugs and methods has required a corresponding increase in the analytical tools and methods required to identify the presence of banned substances in biofluids. Even though extraordinary steps have been taken by organizations such as the World Anti-Doping Agency to limit the use of prohibited substances and methods by athletes willing to cheat, it is apparent that some athletes continue to avoid detection by using alternative doping regimens or taking advantage of the limitations in testing methodologies. This article reviews the testing standards and analytical techniques underlying the procedures used to identify banned substances in biological samples, setting the stage for future summaries of the testing required to establish the use of steroids, stimulants, diuretics, and other prohibited substances.
Robert H. DuRant, Amy B. Middleman, Annie H. Faulkner, S. Jean Emans, and Elizabeth R. Woods
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among anabolic-androgenic steroid use and other drug use, strength training, sports participation, and school performance of high school students. Among males not participating in school sports, 37% of the variation in anabolic steroid use was accounted for by frequency of cocaine use, injected drug use, other drug use, and engaging in strength training. Injection drug use and poly-drug use accounted for 22.1% of the variation in the frequency of anabolic-steroid use among males participating in school sports, 29.1% of the variation among females participating in school sports, and 63.3% of the variation among females not participating in school sports.
Mark H. Anshel
Drug abuse in competitive sport continues to be pervasive. Numerous explanations have been given for this and the reasons range from performance enhancement (anabolic steroids) to relieving stress and boredom (so-called recreational drugs). Drug testing, strict policies and enforcement, and educational programs have continued to be the main responses to the problem. However, relatively little attention has been given to preventive rather than punitive and curative strategies, particularly with respect to the coach’s input. This article offers several cognitive and behavioral approaches for coaches and sport psychology consultants in dealing with drug abuse among athletes. The recommendations are based on personal interactions with hundreds of intercollegiate athletes conducted over a 6-year period and from the extant professional literature.
Laurel R. Davis and Linda C. Delano
Over 40 anti-drug campaign media texts, including posters, videotapes, and brochures, served as data for this study. These texts were systematically analyzed and many prevalent themes were identified and categorized. Several themes are highlighted, focusing on assumptions and interpretations that the texts encourage readers to make. The purpose of this study is to illustrate how many of the anti-drug media campaigns, particularly those concerned with steroids, are problematic because they encourage readers to assume that bodies naturally fit into unambiguous bipolar categories of gender, and that steroids are artificial substances that disrupt this natural gender dichotomization. The assumptions that bodies are purely natural and drugs are artificial substances that disrupt natural bodies are also discussed because they are interconnected with and help to legitimate the assumption of physical gender dichotomization. These media texts are examined in the light of gender relations, wherein the embodiment of particular forms of gender is seen as crucial to the maintenance of the present gender order.