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Gavriil G. Arsoniadis, Gregory C. Bogdanis, Gerasimos Terzis and Argyris G. Toubekis

Competitive swimmers use various types of dry-land strength training aiming to improve general conditioning, body posture, strength endurance, and muscle strength. 1 Increased strength may enhance propulsive force in the water and contribute to overcoming hydrodynamic drag during high-speed swim

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Borja Muniz-Pardos, Alejandro Gómez-Bruton, Ángel Matute-Llorente, Alex González-Agüero, Alba Gómez-Cabello, José A. Casajús and Germán Vicente-Rodríguez

Purpose: To examine the effects of a 6-month whole-body vibration (WBV) training on lower-body strength (LBS), lower-body power (LBP), and swimming performance in adolescent trained swimmers. Methods: Thirty-seven swimmers (23 males and 14 females; 14.8 [1.3] y) were randomly assigned to the WBV (n = 20) or the control group (n = 17). Isometric LBS (knee extension and half squat) and LBP (vertical and horizontal jumps and 30-m sprint) tests were performed before and after the intervention period. Swimming performance times in 100 m were collected from official competitions. As time × sex interaction was not found for any variable (P > .05), males and females were analyzed as a whole. Results: Within-group analyses showed a most likely beneficial moderate effect of WBV on isometric knee extension (effect size [ES] = 0.63), 30-m sprint test (ES = 0.62), and 100-m performance (ES = 0.25), although these were corresponded with comparable small to moderate effects in the control group (ES = 0.73, 0.71, and 0.20, respectively). The control group obtained a small possibly beneficial effect of swimming-only training on vertical jump performance, whereas no effect was observed in the WBV group. Unclear effects were observed for the rest of the variables assessed. Between-group analyses revealed unclear effects of WBV training when compared with the control condition in all studied variables. Conclusions: There is no current evidence to support the use of WBV training, and therefore, coaches and sports specialists should select other methods of training when the aim is to increase LBS, LBP, or swimming performance.

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Gavriil G. Arsoniadis, Gregory C. Bogdanis, Gerasimos Terzis and Argyris G. Toubekis


To examine the acute effect of dry-land strength training on physiological and biomechanical parameters in a subsequent swim-training session.


Twelve male swimmers (age 19.0 ± 2.2 y, peak oxygen uptake [VO2peak] 65.5 ± 11.4 mL∙kg-1∙min-1) performed a 5x200-m test with progressively increasing intensity. Blood lactate concentration (BL) was measured after each 200-m bout, and the speed corresponding to 4 mmol∙L-1 (V4) was calculated. In the experimental (EXP) and control (CON) conditions, swimmers participated in a swim-training session consisting of 1000-m warm-up, a bout of 10-s tethered swimming sprint, and 5x400-m at V4. In EXP, swimmers completed a dry-land strength-training session (load: 85% of 1-repetition maximum) 15 min before the swimming session. In CON, swimmers performed the swimming session only. VO2, BL, arm-stroke rate (SR), arm-stroke length (SL), and arm-stroke efficiency (ηF) were measured during the 5x400-m.


Force in the 10-s sprint was no different between conditions (P = .61), but fatigue index was higher in the EXP condition (P = .03). BL was higher in EXP and showed large effect size at the 5th 400-m repetition compared with CON (6.4 ± 2.7 vs 4.6 ± 2.8 mmol∙L-1, d = 0.63). During the 5x400-m, ηF remained unchanged, SL was decreased from the 3rd repetition onward (P = .01), and SR showed a medium increment in EXP (d = 0.23).


Strength training completed 15 min before a swim-training session caused moderate changes in biomechanical parameters and increased BL concentration during swimming. Despite these changes, swimmers were able to maintain force and submaximal speed during the endurance-training session.

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Mark R. McKean and Brendan J. Burkett

Dry-land strength training is a fundamental component for elite kayak performance. The aims of this research were 3-fold: 1st, to determine the relationship between performance time and strength scores for elite kayakers; 2nd, to identify how strength changes (gains or losses) over 3 training y relate with changes in performance time for elite kayakers; and 3rd, to compare the progression in performance times for elite athletes with the top 3 performers from the national championships. The performance data for 15 elite male and 10 elite female kayakers were collected over 2 y. This group was reduced to 9 men and 8 women in the 3rd and final year. There were direct and significant correlations between strength scores and performance times across the 3 y. Bench-press 1RM increased by 34.8% for men and 42.3% for women. Over the 3 seasons, mean 1000-m time decreased by approximately 4.8%, 500-m times decreased by 7.3% (women), and 200-m times decreased by 9.1%. The women’s 500-m changed from 11.9% difference from medalists to within 1.1% during the 3 y. During the 3 y of this study a change in 1-repetitionmaximum (1RM) bench press of 13% for men and 6.5% in women coincided with a change in performance times of 1%. For 1RM pull-up a change of 10% in men and 2.3% in women coincided with a change in performance times of 1%.

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Danny Lum and Tiago M. Barbosa

in top-level endurance athletes . Scand J Med Sci Sports . 2010 ; 20 : 39 – 47 . PubMed ID: 20840561 doi:10.1111/j.1600-0838.2010.01197.x 20840561 10.1111/j.1600-0838.2010.01197.x 14. Amaro NM , Morouco PG , Marques MC , et al . A systematic review on dry-land strength and conditioning

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Ana F. Silva, Pedro Figueiredo, João Ribeiro, Francisco Alves, João Paulo Vilas-Boas, Ludovic Seifert and Ricardo J. Fernandes

swimming techniques performance . Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 27 ( 2 ), 161 – 169 . doi:10.1123/jab.27.2.161 10.1123/jab.27.2.161 Morouço , P. , Marinho , D.A. , Amaro , N.M. , Pérez-Turpin , J.A. , & Marques , M.C. ( 2012 ). Effects of dry-land strength training on swimming performance

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Miguel Sánchez-Moreno, David Rodríguez-Rosell, Fernando Pareja-Blanco, Ricardo Mora-Custodio and Juan José González-Badillo

. Sánchez-Moreno M , Pareja-Blanco F , Díaz-Cueli D , González-Badillo J . Determinant factors of pull up performance in trained athletes . J Sport Med Phys Fitness . 2016 ; 56 : 825 – 833 . PubMed 29. Trappe SW , Pearson DR . Effects of weight assisted dry-land strength training on