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Erin Smith, Tara Cusack, Caitriona Cunningham and Catherine Blake

, & Winter, 1997 ). However, in order to successfully carry out everyday tasks, it is also necessary to be able to perform concurrent motor and/or mentally challenging activities while walking, requiring input from the cognitive system. This ability to perform concurrent tasks or “dual task”, and the effect

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Dennis Hamacher, Daniel Hamacher, Kathrin Rehfeld, Anita Hökelmann and Lutz Schega

Dancing is a complex sensorimotor activity involving physical and mental elements which have positive effects on cognitive functions and motor control. The present randomized controlled trial aims to analyze the effects of a dancing program on the performance on a motorcognitive dual task. Data of 35 older adults, who were assigned to a dancing group or a health-related exercise group, are presented in the study. In pretest and posttest, we assessed cognitive performance and variability of minimum foot clearance, stride time, and stride length while walking. Regarding the cognitive performance and the stride-to-stride variability of minimum foot clearance, interaction effects have been found, indicating that dancing lowers gait variability to a higher extent than conventional health-related exercise. The data show that dancing improves minimum foot clearance variability and cognitive performance in a dual-task situation. Multi-task exercises (like dancing) might be a powerful tool to improve motor-cognitive dual-task performance.

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Juliana Hotta Ansai, Larissa Pires de Andrade, Marcele Stephanie de Souza Buto, Verena de Vassimon Barroso, Ana Claudia Silva Farche, Paulo Giusti Rossi and Anielle Cristhine de Medeiros Takahashi

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the addition of a dual task to multicomponent training on cognition of active older adults. Eighty physically active older adults were divided into an intervention group (IG) and a control group (CG). Both groups performed multicomponent training over 12 weeks. The IG simultaneously performed exercises and cognitive tasks. The Mini-Mental State Examination, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, and the Clock Drawing Test were used for cognitive assessments. The Timed Up and Go Test associated with a cognitive task was used for dual-task assessment. Significant interactions were not observed between groups in terms of the cognitive variables or the dual-task performance. An interaction was observed only for Timed Up and Go Test performance, which was better in the CG than in the IG. Active older adults showed no improvement in cognition following the addition of the dual task to the multicomponent training.

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Takehide Kimura and Ryouta Matsuura

When an individual performs two tasks simultaneously, performance in either one or both tasks often decreases. This decrement in performance is defined as dual-task interference ( Ebersbach, Dimitrijevic, & Poewe, 1995 ). In our daily life, we perform various combinations of dual tasks and

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Cui Zhang, Qipeng Song, Wei Sun and Yu Liu

, attention, and mobility ( Antonio & Perry, 2014 ), which leads to stair-related injuries, medical emergencies ( Blazewick, Chounthirath, Hodges, Collins, & Smith, 2017 ), or death ( Startzell, Owens, & Cavanagh, 2000 ). Meanwhile, almost 21% of older adults experienced a fall under the dual-task condition

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Daniel Hamacher, Dennis Hamacher, Roy Müller, Lutz Schega and Astrid Zech

the variability of MTC. Dual-task costs during walking (e.g., deterioration of gait variability in a dual-task situation compared with normal walking) are often used to determine gait automaticity ( Clark, 2015 ). Although the variability of stride length or stride time increases during dual-task

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David R. Howell, Thomas A. Buckley, Brant Berkstresser, Francis Wang and William P. Meehan III

systematic review articles by different authors. 5 – 8 Existing data indicate that during dual-task gait, defined as asking a patient to concurrently perform 2 separate tasks (motor and cognitive) simultaneously, those with a concussion have decreased gait stability relative to controls 6 , 7 and impaired

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Cagla Ozkul, Arzu Guclu-Gunduz, Kader Eldemir, Yasemin Apaydin, Cagri Gulsen, Gokhan Yazici, Fatih Soke and Ceyla Irkec

Activities of daily living often require multiple tasks to be performed concurrently. This concurrency often leads to a deterioration in the performance of tasks, which is expressed by cognitive-motor interference (CMI). The CMI is quantified by calculating the dual-task cost (DTC), which is the

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Anson B. Rosenfeldt, Amanda L. Penko, Andrew S. Bazyk, Matthew C. Streicher, Tanujit Dey and Jay L. Alberts

, & Tysnes, 2013 ). In PD, gait impairments become exacerbated under dual-task (DT) conditions, or the simultaneous performance of two attention-demanding tasks ( Kelly, Eusterbrock, & Shumway-Cook, 2012 ; Penko et al., 2018 ). Decreased gait performance under DT conditions in PD has been attributed to

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Ming Fung Godfrey Lui, Hung Kay Daniel Chow, Wai Ming Kenny Wong and Wai Nam William Tsang

, Li, Schmiedek, & Lindenberger, 2006 ; Yardley et al., 2001 ). Dual tasking has been shown to demand devoting additional attention and processing capacity to balance control. This would explain Otmani’s findings and those of Slotten and Krekling. So far, however, melatonin’s effects on the temporal