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Ming Fung Godfrey Lui, Hung Kay Daniel Chow, Wai Ming Kenny Wong and Wai Nam William Tsang

, Li, Schmiedek, & Lindenberger, 2006 ; Yardley et al., 2001 ). Dual tasking has been shown to demand devoting additional attention and processing capacity to balance control. This would explain Otmani’s findings and those of Slotten and Krekling. So far, however, melatonin’s effects on the temporal

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Takehide Kimura and Ryouta Matsuura

When an individual performs two tasks simultaneously, performance in either one or both tasks often decreases. This decrement in performance is defined as dual-task interference ( Ebersbach, Dimitrijevic, & Poewe, 1995 ). In our daily life, we perform various combinations of dual tasks and

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Cui Zhang, Qipeng Song, Wei Sun and Yu Liu

, attention, and mobility ( Antonio & Perry, 2014 ), which leads to stair-related injuries, medical emergencies ( Blazewick, Chounthirath, Hodges, Collins, & Smith, 2017 ), or death ( Startzell, Owens, & Cavanagh, 2000 ). Meanwhile, almost 21% of older adults experienced a fall under the dual-task condition

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Daniel Hamacher, Dennis Hamacher, Roy Müller, Lutz Schega and Astrid Zech

the variability of MTC. Dual-task costs during walking (e.g., deterioration of gait variability in a dual-task situation compared with normal walking) are often used to determine gait automaticity ( Clark, 2015 ). Although the variability of stride length or stride time increases during dual-task

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David R. Howell, Thomas A. Buckley, Brant Berkstresser, Francis Wang and William P. Meehan III

systematic review articles by different authors. 5 – 8 Existing data indicate that during dual-task gait, defined as asking a patient to concurrently perform 2 separate tasks (motor and cognitive) simultaneously, those with a concussion have decreased gait stability relative to controls 6 , 7 and impaired

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Anson B. Rosenfeldt, Amanda L. Penko, Andrew S. Bazyk, Matthew C. Streicher, Tanujit Dey and Jay L. Alberts

, & Tysnes, 2013 ). In PD, gait impairments become exacerbated under dual-task (DT) conditions, or the simultaneous performance of two attention-demanding tasks ( Kelly, Eusterbrock, & Shumway-Cook, 2012 ; Penko et al., 2018 ). Decreased gait performance under DT conditions in PD has been attributed to

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Erin Smith, Tara Cusack, Caitriona Cunningham and Catherine Blake

, & Winter, 1997 ). However, in order to successfully carry out everyday tasks, it is also necessary to be able to perform concurrent motor and/or mentally challenging activities while walking, requiring input from the cognitive system. This ability to perform concurrent tasks or “dual task”, and the effect

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Maria K. Talarico, Robert C. Lynall, Timothy C. Mauntel, Erin B. Wasserman, Darin A. Padua and Jason P. Mihalik

control or injury risk identification. Single-task assessments are often implemented to evaluate dynamic postural control where a task is completed independently from other tasks, such as the single-leg squat. Rehabilitation programs may incorporate dual-task strategies to rehabilitate and rebuild

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Caroline Westwood, Carolyn Killelea, Mallory Faherty and Timothy Sell

although the reason for the increased risk is not clear. The effects of concussion can last months after diagnosis, and many traditional tests do not detect persistent deficits. 3 The use of a dual-task assessment, which adds a cognitive load to a motor assessment, has the potential to be a more

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Peter S. Myers, Kerri S. Rawson, Elinor C. Harrison, Adam P. Horin, Ellen N. Sutter, Marie E. McNeely and Gammon M. Earhart

Gait impairments are frequently observed in people with Parkinson disease (PD), increasing fall risk. 1 Such impairments impact forward gait but are often more pronounced during backward and dual task gait. 2 – 4 Gait impairments are often greater among people with PD with freezing of gait