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Ming Fung Godfrey Lui, Hung Kay Daniel Chow, Wai Ming Kenny Wong, and Wai Nam William Tsang

, Li, Schmiedek, & Lindenberger, 2006 ; Yardley et al., 2001 ). Dual tasking has been shown to demand devoting additional attention and processing capacity to balance control. This would explain Otmani’s findings and those of Slotten and Krekling. So far, however, melatonin’s effects on the temporal

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Landon B. Lempke, Jeonghoon Oh, Rachel S. Johnson, Julianne D. Schmidt, and Robert C. Lynall

movement, performance, and injury risk. Dual-task assessments (ie, completing simultaneous cognitive and motor tasks) have been implemented to serve as a quantitative method to simulate multitasking sport performance requirements. 13 – 15 Emerging research comparing single-task (ie, solely completing a

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Takehide Kimura and Ryouta Matsuura

When an individual performs two tasks simultaneously, performance in either one or both tasks often decreases. This decrement in performance is defined as dual-task interference ( Ebersbach, Dimitrijevic, & Poewe, 1995 ). In our daily life, we perform various combinations of dual tasks and

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Cui Zhang, Qipeng Song, Wei Sun, and Yu Liu

, attention, and mobility ( Antonio & Perry, 2014 ), which leads to stair-related injuries, medical emergencies ( Blazewick, Chounthirath, Hodges, Collins, & Smith, 2017 ), or death ( Startzell, Owens, & Cavanagh, 2000 ). Meanwhile, almost 21% of older adults experienced a fall under the dual-task condition

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Daniel Hamacher, Dennis Hamacher, Roy Müller, Lutz Schega, and Astrid Zech

the variability of MTC. Dual-task costs during walking (e.g., deterioration of gait variability in a dual-task situation compared with normal walking) are often used to determine gait automaticity ( Clark, 2015 ). Although the variability of stride length or stride time increases during dual-task

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David R. Howell, Thomas A. Buckley, Brant Berkstresser, Francis Wang, and William P. Meehan III

systematic review articles by different authors. 5 – 8 Existing data indicate that during dual-task gait, defined as asking a patient to concurrently perform 2 separate tasks (motor and cognitive) simultaneously, those with a concussion have decreased gait stability relative to controls 6 , 7 and impaired

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Nathan Morelli, Nicholas R. Heebner, Courtney J. DeFeo, and Matthew C. Hoch

control performance during dual-task conditions is present in healthy, young, and older adults ( Morelli, Heebner, Bergin, Quintana, & Hoch, 2020 ; Remaud, Boyas, Caron, & Bilodeau, 2012 ; Woollacott & Shumway-Cook, 2002 ). However, during various neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson’s disease

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Cagla Ozkul, Arzu Guclu-Gunduz, Kader Eldemir, Yasemin Apaydin, Cagri Gulsen, Gokhan Yazici, Fatih Soke, and Ceyla Irkec

Activities of daily living often require multiple tasks to be performed concurrently. This concurrency often leads to a deterioration in the performance of tasks, which is expressed by cognitive-motor interference (CMI). The CMI is quantified by calculating the dual-task cost (DTC), which is the

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Anson B. Rosenfeldt, Amanda L. Penko, Andrew S. Bazyk, Matthew C. Streicher, Tanujit Dey, and Jay L. Alberts

, & Tysnes, 2013 ). In PD, gait impairments become exacerbated under dual-task (DT) conditions, or the simultaneous performance of two attention-demanding tasks ( Kelly, Eusterbrock, & Shumway-Cook, 2012 ; Penko et al., 2018 ). Decreased gait performance under DT conditions in PD has been attributed to

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Erin Smith, Tara Cusack, Caitriona Cunningham, and Catherine Blake

, & Winter, 1997 ). However, in order to successfully carry out everyday tasks, it is also necessary to be able to perform concurrent motor and/or mentally challenging activities while walking, requiring input from the cognitive system. This ability to perform concurrent tasks or “dual task”, and the effect