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The Relationship of Self-efficacy and Explicit and Implicit Associations on the Intention–Behavior Gap

Alison Divine, Tanya Berry, Wendy Rodgers, and Craig Hall

.1111/spc3.12090 34. McConnell AR , Rydell RJ . The systems of evaluation model: a dual-systems approach to attitudes . In: Sherman JW , Gawronski B , Trope Y , eds. Dual Process Theories of the Social Mind . New York, NY : The Guilford Press ; 2014 : 204 – 218 . 35. Berry TR , Jones

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Examining the Relationship Between Exercise-Related Cognitive Errors, Exercise Schema, and Implicit Associations

Sean R. Locke and Tanya R. Berry

it is possible that ECEs moderate this misconstrual process at an automatic level. The objective of this research was to examine ECEs from a dual processing perspective. Automatic evaluations develop over time based on experience or learning in exercise environments ( Gawronski et al., 2017 ). They

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Teeming With Grief: Sports Teams’ Need for Resources and Support During Bereavement

Jana Fogaca, Illene Cupit, and Matthew Gonzalez

little about how these stakeholders grieve the loss of a nonathlete (e.g., if an athletic trainer passed). Dual Process Model Approaches to understanding responses to bereavement and grief have expanded beyond the original Kübler-Ross ( 1969 ) model to encompass the notion of continuing bonds ( Klass et

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Self-Regulation and Implicit Attitudes Toward Physical Activity Influence Exercise Behavior

Avelina C. Padin, Charles F. Emery, Michael Vasey, and Janice K. Kiecolt-Glaser

self-regulators, this tenet of dual-process models has not been tested in the context of PA. Leisure-Time Physical Activity In prior studies, researchers have investigated the effects of implicit attitudes on overall PA level, often using pedometers. In these studies, participant step counts were

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Executive Functions, Trait Self-Control, and the Intention–Behavior Gap in Physical Activity Behavior

Ines Pfeffer and Tilo Strobach

results in light of dual-process approaches ( Fishbach & Shen, 2014 ; Hofmann, Friese, & Strack, 2009 ; Strack & Deutsch, 2004 ), assuming that human behavior is controlled by two qualitatively different modes of processing: implicit and explicit processing. Once an intention–behavior conflict is

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The Effects of Message Appeal on Consumer Attitude Toward Sporting Events

Wonseok Jang, Yong Jae Ko, and Svetlana Stepchenkova

Advertisers put considerable effort into developing messages that appeal to a persuadable target group. Based on the characteristics of these audiences, as well as a number of situational factors, advertising messages can be described as primarily informational or emotional. The purpose of this study was to test how the value orientation of a sports-related event and situational involvement moderate consumers’ information processing and attitudes toward the event advertisement. Consistent with dual-process theory, the results indicate that, when dealing with information about a utilitarian sports career-fair event, consumers rely on either effortful or effortless processing depending on their level of situational involvement. However, consumers use both effortful and effortless processing for a hedonic sporting event. This study extends the dual-process theory and planning models by suggesting that a traditional, theory-based dichotomous dual-process model should give way to a co-occurrence model for hedonic sporting events in high-involvement situations.

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Exercise Might Be Good for Me, But I Don’t Feel Good About It: Do Automatic Associations Predict Exercise Behavior?

Matthias Bluemke, Ralf Brand, Geoffrey Schweizer, and Daniela Kahlert

Models employed in exercise psychology highlight the role of reflective processes for explaining behavior change. However, as discussed in social cognition literature, information-processing models also consider automatic processes (dual-process models). To examine the relevance of automatic processing in exercise psychology, we used a priming task to assess the automatic evaluations of exercise stimuli in physically active sport and exercise majors (n = 32), physically active nonsport majors (n = 31), and inactive students (n = 31). Results showed that physically active students responded faster to positive words after exercise primes, whereas inactive students responded more rapidly to negative words. Priming task reaction times were successfully used to predict reported amounts of exercise in an ordinal regression model. Findings were obtained only with experiential items reflecting negative and positive consequences of exercise. The results illustrate the potential importance of dual-process models in exercise psychology.

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What to Study? That Is a Question: A Conscious Thought Analysis

James Jianhui Zhang

This lecture was intended to continue the discussions on why and how to establish a distinctive sport management discipline that was initiated by previous Earle F. Zeigler Lecture Award recipients. Through applying the dual process theory (Dijksterhuis & Nordgren, 2006), it was intended to explore the differences between tangible and intangible variables, how they have been studied as distinct perspectives, and how they can be integrated through two application examples, one on service quality of sport event operations and the other on market demand for sport events. Hopefully, this lecture would help reenergize the discussions and inquiries on this important matter. These illustrations are certainly debatable and subject to further empirical examinations.

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A Teacher-Focused Intervention to Decrease PE Students’ Amotivation by Increasing Need Satisfaction and Decreasing Need Frustration

Sung Hyeon Cheon, Johnmarshall Reeve, and Yong-Gwan Song

Intervention-induced gains in need satisfaction decrease PE students’ amotivation. The present study adopted a dual-process model to test whether an intervention could also decrease need frustration and hence provide a second supplemental source to further decrease students’ PE amotivation. Using an experimental, longitudinal research design, 19 experienced PE teachers (9 experimental, 10 control) and their 1,017 students participated in an intervention program to help teachers become both more autonomy supportive and less controlling. Multilevel repeated measures analyses showed that students of teachers in the experimental group reported greater T2, T3, and T4 perceived autonomy support, need satisfaction, and engagement and lesser T2, T3, and T4 perceived teacher control, need frustration, and amotivation than did students of teachers in the control group. Multilevel structural equation modeling analyses confirmed the hypothesized dual-process model in which both intervention-induced increases in need satisfaction and intervention-induced decreases need frustration decreased students’ end-of-semester amotivation. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of this new finding on the dual antecedents of diminished amotivation.

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Moderators of Implicit–Explicit Exercise Cognition Concordance

Tanya R. Berry, Wendy M. Rodgers, David Markland, and Craig R. Hall

Investigating implicit–explicit concordance can aid in understanding underlying mechanisms and possible intervention effects. This research examined the concordance between implicit associations of exercise with health or appearance and related explicit motives. Variables considered as possible moderators were behavioral regulations, explicit attitudes, and social desirability. Participants (N = 454) completed measures of implicit associations of exercise with health and appearance and questionnaire measures of health and appearance motives, attitudes, social desirability, and behavioral regulations. Attitudes significantly moderated the relationship between implicit associations of exercise with health and health motives. Identified regulations significantly moderated implicit–explicit concordance with respect to associations with appearance. These results suggest that implicit and explicit exercise-related cognitions are not necessarily independent and their relationship to each other may be moderated by attitudes or some forms of behavioral regulation. Future research that takes a dual-processing approach to exercise behavior should consider potential theoretical moderators of concordance.