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William W.N. Tsang and Christina W.Y. Hui-Chan

Purpose:

To determine whether older golfers have better static and dynamic balance control than older but nongolfing healthy adults.

Methods:

Eleven golfers and 12 control participants (all male; 66.2 ± 6.8 and 71.3 ± 6.6 yr old, respectively) were recruited. Duration of static single-leg stance was timed. Control of body sway was assessed in single-leg stance during forward and backward platform perturbations. The lunge distance normalized with respect to each participant’s height was used to compare the 2 groups in a forward-lunge test.

Results:

Golfers maintained significantly longer duration in static single-leg stance. They achieved less anteroposterior body sway in perturbed single-leg stance and lunged significantly farther than did control participants.

Conclusions:

The better static and dynamic balance control exhibited by older golfers possibly reflects the effects of weight transfers from repeated golf swings during weight shift from 2-leg to predominantly 1-leg stance and from walking on uneven fairways.

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Giorgos Sofianidis, Vassilia Hatzitaki, Stella Douka and Giorgos Grouios

This preliminary study examined the effect of a 10-wk traditional Greek dance program on static and dynamic balance indices in healthy elderly adults. Twenty-six community-dwelling older adults were randomly assigned to either an intervention group who took supervised Greek traditional dance classes for 10 wk (1 hr, 2 sessions/week, n = 14), or a control group (n = 12). Balance was assessed pre- and postintervention by recording the center-of-pressure (COP) variations and trunk kinematics during performance of the Sharpened-Romberg test, 1-leg (OL) stance, and dynamic weight shifting (WS). After practice, the dance group significantly decreased COP displacement and trunk sway in OL stance. A significant increase in the range of trunk rotation was noted during performance of dynamic WS in the sagittal and frontal planes. These findings support the use of traditional dance as an effective means of physical activity for improving static and dynamic balance control in the elderly.

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Yuko Kuramatsu, Yuji Yamamoto and Shin-Ichi Izumi

), may dramatically affect daily activities. Under these circumstances, patients with hemiparesis must develop dynamic balance control so that the timing and spatial configuration of their movements are effective ( Carr & Shephard, 2003 ). However, it is unclear whether a strategy for solving this

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Robert D. Catena, Nigel Campbell, Alexa L. Werner and Kendall M. Iverson

-related emergency room visits. 2 – 4 The likelihood of a fall during pregnancy should be directly related to the dynamic balance control of the individual. 5 Despite the likelihood of this relationship, dynamic balance changes during pregnancy are rarely clinically tested and not typically considered in

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Jin H. Yan

Empirical evidence from this study supports the hypothesis that Tai Chi practice can improve senior citizens’ dynamic balance control and rapid-aiming arm movement performance. Of 38 senior citizens, 28 (M = 78.8 years. SD = 2.1) chose to practice the 24-form simplified Tai Chi. The remaining 10 seniors (M = 79.2 years. SD = 1.9) selected a locomotor activity (walking or jogging). Dynamic balance tests and ballistic-aiming arm movements were conducted for all participants at the beginning, middle (4th week), and end of the 8-week exercise program. The Tai Chi participants improved their time on balance more than did their counterparts who performed locomotor activities. In addition, Tai Chi practice improved arm movement smoothness to a greater extent than the locomotor activities. However, no changes in arm movement speed were observed in either group. The results suggest that Tai Chi practice may help senior citizens improve dynamic balance control and gain smoothness in rapid-aiming arm movements.

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Richard E.A. van Emmerik, Stephanie L. Jones, Michael A. Busa and Jennifer L. Baird

Postural instability, falls, and fear of falling that accompany frailty with aging and disease form major impediments to physical activity. In this article we present a theoretical framework that may help researchers and practitioners in the development and delivery of intervention programs aimed at reducing falls and improving postural stability and locomotion in older individuals and in those with disability due to disease. Based on a review of the dynamical and complex systems perspectives of movement coordination and control, we show that 1) central to developing a movement-based intervention program aimed at fall reduction and prevention is the notion that variability can play a functional role and facilitate movement adaptability, 2) intervention programs aimed at fall reduction should focus more on coordination and stability boundary measures instead of traditional gait and posture outcome variables, and 3) noise-based intervention techniques using stochastic resonance may offer external aids to improve dynamic balance control.

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Original Research Static and Dynamic Balance Control in Older Golfers William W.N. Tsang * Christina W.Y. Hui-Chan * 1 2010 18 1 1 13 10.1123/japa.18.1.1 Research Can Aerobic Training Improve Muscle Strength and Power in Older Men? Dale I. Lovell * Ross Cuneo * Greg C. Gass * 1 2010 18 1

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Flexibility in Older Women Yael Netz * Esther Argov * Omri Inbar * 4 2009 17 2 154 166 10.1123/japa.17.2.154 Effect of a 10-Week Traditional Dance Program on Static and Dynamic Balance Control in Elderly Adults Giorgos Sofianidis * Vassilia Hatzitaki * Stella Douka * Giorgos Grouios * 4 2009 17

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Tomomasa Nakamura, Yuriko Yoshida, Hiroshi Churei, Junya Aizawa, Kenji Hirohata, Takehiro Ohmi, Shunsuke Ohji, Toshiyuki Takahashi, Mitsuhiro Enomoto, Toshiaki Ueno and Kazuyoshi Yagishita

that voluntary clenching during jump-landing had a positive effect on dynamic balance. The second hypothesis was that the appropriate occlusal intervention contributed to better dynamic balance control. Methods Twenty-five healthy subjects (10 female, 15 male) between the ages of 20 and 30 who

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George Sofianidis, Anna-Maria Dimitriou and Vassilia Hatzitaki

, balance and flexibility) have limited success at improving particular aspects of static and dynamic balance control and subsequently attenuating fall incidence ( Carter, Kannus, & Khan, 2001 ; Frank & Patla, 2003 ). Furthermore, the high physical impact of such exercise interventions could impose