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Tomomasa Nakamura, Yuriko Yoshida, Hiroshi Churei, Junya Aizawa, Kenji Hirohata, Takehiro Ohmi, Shunsuke Ohji, Toshiyuki Takahashi, Mitsuhiro Enomoto, Toshiaki Ueno and Kazuyoshi Yagishita

teeth clenching on dynamic balance. Stabilization of dynamic balance is important for sport activity and injury prevention. Although the effects of teeth clenching on sport performance and injury prevention were investigated in several pieces of research, 16 – 18 they remain controversial. Additionally

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Robert D. Catena, Nigel Campbell, Alexa L. Werner and Kendall M. Iverson

-related emergency room visits. 2 – 4 The likelihood of a fall during pregnancy should be directly related to the dynamic balance control of the individual. 5 Despite the likelihood of this relationship, dynamic balance changes during pregnancy are rarely clinically tested and not typically considered in

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George Sofianidis, Anna-Maria Dimitriou and Vassilia Hatzitaki

, balance and flexibility) have limited success at improving particular aspects of static and dynamic balance control and subsequently attenuating fall incidence ( Carter, Kannus, & Khan, 2001 ; Frank & Patla, 2003 ). Furthermore, the high physical impact of such exercise interventions could impose

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Anat V. Lubetzky, Bryan D. Hujsak, Gene Fu and Ken Perlin

trainers compared with on the floor on static balance tasks, but reduced it within the “park” balance task ( Lubetzky, Hujsak, Kary, Darmanin, & Perlin, 2017 ) suggesting different mechanisms for static and dynamic postural control. The aims of this study were to compare dynamic balance mechanism (in terms

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Cornelius John, Andreas Stotz, Julian Gmachowski, Anna Lina Rahlf, Daniel Hamacher, Karsten Hollander and Astrid Zech

the development of CAI. The question remains whether external ankle supports rather lead to an enhancement of functional or mechanical or both components. Functional components, such as static and dynamic balance and poor landing biomechanics, have been shown to be associated with lower

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William W.N. Tsang and Christina W.Y. Hui-Chan

Purpose:

To determine whether older golfers have better static and dynamic balance control than older but nongolfing healthy adults.

Methods:

Eleven golfers and 12 control participants (all male; 66.2 ± 6.8 and 71.3 ± 6.6 yr old, respectively) were recruited. Duration of static single-leg stance was timed. Control of body sway was assessed in single-leg stance during forward and backward platform perturbations. The lunge distance normalized with respect to each participant’s height was used to compare the 2 groups in a forward-lunge test.

Results:

Golfers maintained significantly longer duration in static single-leg stance. They achieved less anteroposterior body sway in perturbed single-leg stance and lunged significantly farther than did control participants.

Conclusions:

The better static and dynamic balance control exhibited by older golfers possibly reflects the effects of weight transfers from repeated golf swings during weight shift from 2-leg to predominantly 1-leg stance and from walking on uneven fairways.

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Mary Jo MacCracken and Robert E. Stadulis

Dynamic balance performance of young children (ages 4, 6, and 8) was assessed in three social situations: alone (only with tester present); coaction (one other child performing at the same time); and spectators (five other observer children present). Within each age and gender, children (N = 120) were classified as of higher or lower comparative skill. Each balance task performed (walking forward and backward on a line, a narrow beam or a wide beam) was classified as representing easier or more difficult tasks for each child individually. Findings (p ≤ .05) indicated that the facilitation effects of social situations strengthened over age, with spectators producing increments in performance for children of higher skill (especially boys) and decrements in performance for the lower skilled children (both boys and girls). Coaction resulted in positive effects regardless of skill level.

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Lucinda E. Bouillon, Douglas K. Sklenka and Amy C. Driver

Context:

Interval cycle training could positively influence dynamic balance in middle-aged women.

Objective:

To compare training effects of a strength ergometer and a standard ergometer on 3 dynamic balance tests.

Design:

Repeated measures.

Setting:

Laboratory.

Participants:

Seventeen women were randomly assigned to standard (n = 10) or strength cycle ergometry (n = 7). A control group consisted of 7 women.

Intervention:

Ergometry interval training (3 sessions/wk for 4 wk).

Main Outcome Measures:

Three balance tests—the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT), timed up-and-go (TUG), and four-square step test (FSST)—were performed at pretraining and 4 wk posttraining.

Results:

Four SEBT directions improved and faster scores for FSST and TUG tests for the standard-cycle group were found, whereas the strength-cycle group only improved their TUG scores. No changes posttraining for the control group.

Conclusions:

Stationary cycle training should be included in the dynamic balance-rehabilitation protocol for middle-aged women.

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Hani Ribadi, Robert A. Rider and Tonya Toole

The purpose of this investigation was to compare static and dynamic balance in sighted, sighted blindfolded, and congenitally blind students. The subjects (N = 51) ranged in age from 14.1 to 17.4 years of age. The sighted subjects (N = 34) were randomly assigned to one of two groups, 17 in the sighted and 17 in the sighted blindfolded group. The 17 congenitally blind subjects were selected from the total population of blind students attending a special school for the blind. All subjects were tested for static balance using the Stork Stand. Dynamic balance was measured using the stabilometer. The data analysis revealed significant differences between all three groups, with the sighted group demonstrating superior balance for both measures. The blind subjects performed significantly better than the sighted blindfolded group for dynamic balance only. The results of the study support previous investigations which have demonstrated that sighted individuals have better balance when compared with blind individuals. However, the fact that the blind subjects performed better on dynamic balance when compared to the sighted blindfolded group points to the need for immediate intervention in this area for adventitiously blind persons, or those acquiring blindness later in life.

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Christina Davlin-Pater

This study investigated the influence of visual cues and perceptual style on static and dynamic balance performance. Twenty-five field dependent (FD) and twenty-five field independent (FI) participants performed tests of static and dynamic balance under five different vision conditions. Balance performance was measured using the Biodex Balance System. The vision conditions included: eyes open with visual feedback (EOFB), without visual feedback (EOEC), viewing lines tilted 18° (EOTL), eyes open without any visual cues (EONC), and eyes closed (EC). All participants were more stable when visual cues were present. Results revealed no significant difference between the two groups on the static balance task in any of the vision conditions. A significant difference was found between the two groups on the dynamic balance task. In three of the vision conditions (EOFB, EOEC, EOTL), the FI group was found to be more stable than the FD group. Movement of the body required during a dynamic balance task generates vestibular and somatosensory information which FI individuals may be more efficient in translating into greater stability as compared with FD individuals.