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Hiroshi R. Yamasaki, Hiroyuki Kambara, and Yasuharu Koike

The purpose of this study was to clarify criteria that can predict trajectories during the sit-to-stand movement. In particular, the minimum jerk and minimum torque-change models were examined. Three patterns of sit-to-stand movement from a chair, i.e., upright, natural, and leaning forward, were measured in five young participants using a 3-D motion analysis device (200 Hz). The trajectory of the center of mass and its smoothness were examined, and the optimal trajectories predicted by both models were evaluated. Trajectories of the center of mass predicted by the minimum torque-change model, rather than the minimum jerk model, resembled the measured movements in all rising movement patterns. The upright pattern required greater extension torque of the knee and ankle joints at the instant of seat-off. The leaning-forward pattern required greater extension hip torque and higher movement cost than the natural and upright patterns. These results indicate that the natural sit-to-stand movement might be a result of dynamic optimization.

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Erik T. Hummer, Tanner Thorsen, Joshua T. Weinhandl, Jeffrey A. Reinbolt, Harrold Cates, and Songning Zhang

. Static and dynamic optimization solutions for gait are practically equivalent . J Biomech . 2001 ; 34 ( 2 ): 153 – 161 . PubMed ID: 11165278 doi:10.1016/S0021-9290(00)00155-X 11165278 10.1016/S0021-9290(00)00155-X 35. Hicks JL , Uchida TK , Seth A , Rajagopal A , Delp SL . Is my model

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Linh Q. Vu, Rahul Agrawal, Mahdi Hassan, and Nils A. Hakansson

. Anderson , F.C. , & Pandy , M.G. ( 2001 ). Dynamic optimization of human walking . Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, 123 ( 5 ), 381 – 390 . https://doi.org/10.1115/1.1392310 10.1115/1.1392310 Ando , T. , Kobayashi , Y. , Okamoto , J. , Takahashi , M. , & Fujie , M.G. ( 2010

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Amy R. Lewis, William S.P. Robertson, Elissa J. Phillips, Paul N. Grimshaw, and Marc Portus

propulsion . Clin Biomech . 2002 ; 17 ( 3 ): 211 – 218 . doi:10.1016/S0268-0033(02)00008-6 10.1016/S0268-0033(02)00008-6 15. Morrow MM , Rankin JW , Neptune RR , Kaufman KR . A comparison of static and dynamic optimization muscle force predictions during wheelchair propulsion . J Biomech

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Sangsoo Park, Richard Van Emmerik, and Graham E. Caldwell

end-point force direction in the dynamic and highly constrained motor task facilitated development of a more complete muscle coordination strategy. In future work, we will use muscle synergy analysis ( De Marchis et al., 2013 ; Kargo & Nitz, 2003 ) and dynamic optimization ( Neptune, Kautz, & Zajac

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Sarah A. Roelker, Elena J. Caruthers, Rachel K. Hall, Nicholas C. Pelz, Ajit M.W. Chaudhari, and Robert A. Siston

simulation of normal walking . J Biomech . 2008 ; 41 ( 15 ): 3236 – 3242 . PubMed ID: 18804767 doi:10.1016/j.jbiomech.2008.08.008 18804767 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2008.08.008 15. Anderson FC , Pandy MG . Dynamic optimization of human walking . J Biomech Eng . 2001 ; 123 ( 5 ): 381 – 390 . PubMed ID

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Prasanna Sritharan, Luke G. Perraton, Mario A. Munoz, Peter Pivonka, and Adam L. Bryant

-9290(98)00158-4 10052917 10.1016/S0021-9290(98)00158-4 31. Anderson FC , Pandy MG . Static and dynamic optimization solutions for gait are practically equivalent . J Biomech . 2001 ; 34 ( 2 ): 153 – 161 . PubMed ID: 11165278 doi:10.1016/S0021-9290(00)00155-X 10.1016/S0021-9290(00)00155-X 11165278 32. Rudolph KS

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Geoffrey T. Burns, Kenneth M. Kozloff, and Ronald F. Zernicke

, H. , & Koike , Y. ( 2011 ). Dynamic optimization of the sit-to-stand movement . Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 27 ( 4 ), 306 – 313 . PubMed ID: 21896954 doi:10.1123/jab.27.4.306 Yoshihuku , Y. , & Herzog , W. ( 1990 ). Optimal-design parameters of the bicycle-rider system for maximal

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Mark L. Latash

). Moving a hand-held object: Reconstruction of referent coordinate and apparent stiffness trajectories . Neuroscience, 298, 336 – 356 . https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2015.04.023 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2015.04.023 Anderson , F.C. , & Pandy , M.G. ( 2001 ). Static and dynamic optimization