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Lennart Raudsepp, Inga Neissaar and Merike Kull

The purpose of this study was to examine the stability of sedentary behaviors and physical activity in Estonian school children aged 11–12 year at the beginning of the study. In addition, the consequence of changes in sedentary behaviors on a change in physical activity was investigated. Adolescents (N = 345) completed the 3-Day Physical Activity Recall on four occasions over a 22-month period. Results indicated the curvilinear changes in sedentary behaviors and physical activity across time. There was a significant decrease in physical activity and an increase in sedentary behaviors across three years. Stability coefficients indicated a moderate differential stability of the sedentary behaviors (ranged from 0.31 to 0.64) and physical activity (ranged from 0.36 to 0.59) during early adolescence. Latent growth modeling indicated that increase in sedentary behaviors across a 22-month period was inversely associated with a change in physical activity. Interventions targeted at “high-risk” groups to reduce sedentary behaviors during early adolescence are encouraged.

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Rodrigo A. Lima, Karin Pfeiffer, Lisbeth R. Larsen, Anna Bugge, Niels C. Moller, Lars B. Anderson and David F. Stodden

Background:

The current study evaluated the reciprocal longitudinal relationship between physical activity (PA) and motor competence (MC) and the potential mediation of cardiorespiratory endurance across 7 years.

Methods:

This was a 7-year longitudinal study, the Copenhagen School Child Intervention Study (CoSCIS), with 3 measuring points [mean ages (in years) and respective sample size: 6.75 ± 0.37, n = 696; 9.59 ± 1.07, n = 617; 13.35 ± 0.34, n = 513]. PA was assessed using accelerometers. MC was evaluated by the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder (KTK) test battery. Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak) was evaluated using a continuous running protocol until exhaustion. Structural equation modeling was performed to evaluate the longitudinal associations.

Results:

Vigorous PA (VPA) and MC presented reciprocal longitudinal association during the 7-year follow-up (VPA → MC; β = 0.18; 95% CI: 0.10, 0.26; MC → VPA; β = 0.14; 95% CI: 0.08, 0.21). In addition, VO2peak mediated the relationship in both directions (VPA → MC; β = 0.09; 95% CI: 0.06, 0.12; MC → VPA; β = 0.06; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.09).

Conclusions:

PA and MC presented a positive reciprocal relationship across childhood through early adolescence and VO2peak mediated the association in both directions. Interventions targeting to increase PA in children and adolescents should also address the development of MC skills because of the clear positive feedback loop between PA and MC.

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Bruna Gonçalves Cordeiro da Silva, Fernando César Wehrmeister, Philip H. Quanjer, Rogelio Pérez-Padilla, Helen Gonçalves, Bernardo Lessa Horta, Pedro Curi Hallal, Fernando Barros and Ana Maria Baptista Menezes

Background:

The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between physical activity from 11 to 15 years of age and pulmonary function (PF) gain from 15 to 18 years of age among adolescents in a birth cohort in Brazil.

Methods:

Longitudinal analysis of the individuals participating in the 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study. Physical activity was assessed by self-report at ages 11 and 15, spirometry was performed at ages 15 and 18 (n = 3571). Outcome variables assessed were gains in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and peak expiratory flow (PEF). Crude and adjusted linear regressions, stratified by sex, and mediation analyses were performed.

Results:

Boys who were active (leisure-time and total physical activity) at ages 11 and 15 had higher gains in FEV1, FVC, and PEF than those who were inactive. Vigorous-intensity physical activity in boys was also associated with FEV1 and FVC gains. Mediation analyses showed that height at age 18 accounted for 5% to 75% of the association between physical activity and PF gains. No significant associations were found among girls.

Conclusions:

Physical activity in early adolescence is associated with gains in PF by the end of adolescence in boys.

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Lennart Raudsepp, Kristjan Kais and Aave Hannus

This study was undertaken to examine the stability of adolescents’ physical self-perceptions across short (4 days) and longer (6 and 12 months) periods of time. Boys and girls (n = 195) from 12 to 13 years of age completed the Children’s Physical Self-Perception Profile for 4 consecutive days; follow-up measurements were performed 6 and 12 months later. Results for the short term revealed relatively high stability of physical self-perceptions for the group, although most individuals showed fluctuations in self-perceptions over the 4 days. As expected, adolescents’ self-perceptions were less stable when follow-up measurements were administered.

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Alan L. Smith

This study tested a model describing the relationships among perceptions of peer relationships, physical self-worth, affective responses toward physical activity, and physical activity motivation. The model was grounded in Harter’s (1978,1981a, 1986,1987) theoretical perspective, proposing that perceptions of peer relationships (i.e., friendship, peer acceptance) would predict physical activity motivation via affect and physical self-worth. Adolescents (N = 418, ages 12–15 years) completed a battery of questionnaires that assessed the study variables. Results of structural equation modeling analyses supported the overall model and most of the hypothesized direct and indirect relationships among variables for both female and male samples. Examination of alternative models suggested that some expected relationships might have been suppressed by a high correlation between the friendship and peer-acceptance constructs. However, alternative models also showed that these constructs independently contribute to predicting motivational variables. The results illustrate the importance of peer relationships to adolescent physical activity motivation.

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David Kahan and Virginie Nicaise

Background:

Curriculum interventions aimed at increasing physical activity in schools may prove useful in contexts where changes in policy/environment are not feasible. Design/evaluation of interventions targeting minority groups is important in light of well-publicized health disparities. Religious minorities represent a special subset that may positively respond to interventions tailored to their unique beliefs, which to date have been relatively underreported.

Methods:

Muslim American youth (n = 45) attending a parochial middle school participated in a religiously- and culturally-tailored 8-wk, interdisciplinary pedometer intervention. School-time ambulatory activity was quantified using a delayed multiple-baseline across subjects ABA design. Visual analysis of graphic data as well as repeated-measures ANOVA and ANCOVA and post hoc contrasts were used to analyze step counts including the moderating effects of day type (PE, no-PE), gender, BMI classification, grade, and time.

Results:

The intervention elicited modest increases in males’ steps only with effect decay beginning midintervention. BMI classification and grade were not associated with changes in steps.

Conclusions:

Full curricular integration by affected classroom teachers, staff modeling of PA behavior, and alternative curriculum for girls’ PE classes may further potentiate the intervention.

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Byron J. Kemp, Anne-Maree Parrish, Marijka Batterham and Dylan P. Cliff

active chores/work change between late childhood (10–11 y), early adolescence (12–13 y), and mid-adolescence (14–15 y)? and (2) Are these changes moderated by sex, socioeconomic position, language spoken at home, Indigenous status, or geographical remoteness? Based on national cross-sectional statistics

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Rodrigo Antunes Lima, Lisbeth Runge Larsen, Anna Bugge and Lars Bo Andersen

higher physical fitness was longitudinally associated with better academic performance during childhood, 7–13 years of age, and early adolescence, 10–16 years of age. In addition, WC was negatively associated with academic performance and mediated some of the longitudinal relationship between physical

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Janet Robertson, Eric Emerson, Susannah Baines and Chris Hatton

annual panel study that followed a cohort from early adolescence into adulthood. It has collected information about their education and employment, economic circumstances, family life, physical and emotional health and well-being, social participation, and attitudes. Next Steps data have also been

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Athanasios Chatzinikolaou, Konstantinos Michaloglou, Alexandra Avloniti, Diamanda Leontsini, Chariklia K. Deli, Dimitris Vlachopoulos, Luis Gracia-Marco, Sotirios Arsenis, Ioannis Athanailidis, Dimitrios Draganidis, Athanasios Z. Jamurtas, Craig A. Williams and Ioannis G. Fatouros

, and a similar biomechanical movement pattern (eg, plyometric jumps). 17 The available information regarding the responses of soccer players to periodized complex strength/power training during early adolescence is limited. Therefore, this study used a comprehensive set of measurements to evaluate the