young child across five domains: communication, gross motor, fine motor, problem solving, and personal-social. We selected this instrument because of its ability to measure development as a function of age-specific milestones across multiple domains during early childhood. This would help inform us of
Brittany G. Travers, Heather L. Kirkorian, Matthew J. Jiang, Koeun Choi, Karl S. Rosengren, Porter Pavalko and Paul Jobin
Angela Maria Hoyos-Quintero and Herney Andrés García-Perdomo
early childhood influence the behaviors of later stages of life, intervention is vital at these ages, as it is still possible to prevent the acquisition of a sedentary lifestyle with all the diseases this involves. 1 , 2 At the same time, obesity has reached epidemic levels among preschool children
Thelma S. Horn
, Pearson, Ross, & Braithwaite, 2010 ; Malina, 2001 ) who also noted tracking in these behaviors across subsequent developmental time periods. Thus, differences between children in physical activity and sedentary levels seem to begin in early childhood and track reasonably well into the middle childhood
Xavier García-Massó, Adrià Marco-Ahulló, Israel Villarrasa-Sapiña, Julio Álvarez-Pitti and Jose-Luis Bermejo
the effects of obesity in early childhood (between 4–6 years old). Two hypotheses have been postulated to explain the effect of obesity on postural stability. The first is based on the biomechanics of the inverted pendulum model used to explain balance in humans. Following this model, the higher the
Nicholas M. Edwards, Philip R. Khoury, Heidi J. Kalkwarf, Jessica G. Woo, Randal P. Claytor and Stephen R. Daniels
Establishing and maintaining healthy physical activity (PA) levels is important throughout life. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent of PA tracking between ages 3 and 7 y. Objective measures of PA (RT3, triaxial accelerometer) were collected every 4 mo from ages 3–7; data from 234 children with PA measures available during each year of age were analyzed. Mean PA (total, moderate/vigorous (MV), and inactivity [IA]) was calculated for each year of age and adjusted for wear time. Correlations with age 3 PA were moderate at age 4 (r = .42−.45) but declined by age 7 (r = .19−.25). After classification into sex-specific tertiles of PA at age 3, boys in the high age 3 MVPA tertile maintained significantly higher PA at all subsequent ages, while girls in the high age 3 MVPA tertile were not significantly higher at age 6 and 7. Boys and girls in the high age 3 IA tertile had significantly higher IA at multiple subsequent years of age (p < .05 at ages 5 and 6). In conclusion, boys who were relatively more active at age 3 remained more active for several subsequent years. These findings highlight early-childhood differences in physical activity patterns between boys and girls.
Xiaoxia Zhang, Xiangli Gu, Tao Zhang, Priscila Caçola and Jing Wang
The high prevalence of childhood obesity is a significant concern to our society, as more than 30% of young children aged between 3 and 5 years being currently categorized as overweight and obese ( 30 ), and spending 34% to 94% of their day being sedentary ( 16 ). Obesity in early childhood is
Zhiguang Zhang, Eduarda Sousa-Sá, João R. Pereira, Anthony D. Okely, Xiaoqi Feng and Rute Santos
physical activity from early childhood through youth into adulthood . Med Sci Sports Exerc . 2014 ; 46 : 955 – 962 . 10.1249/MSS.0000000000000181 24121247 4. Carson V , Lee EY , Hewitt L , et al . Systematic review of the relationships between physical activity and health indicators in the
Cathy S. McMillan and Loran D. Erdmann
This study tracked health-related physical fitness measurements in children, including sum of triceps and medial calf skinfolds, timed 1-mile run/walk, 1-min bent-knee sit-up, pull-up, and sit-and-reach values. Results are from 409 boys and 409 girls tested in kindergarten and fifth grade, also retaining their first, second, third, and fourth grade data. In separate gender analyses, Spearman’s rho correlations were significant (p < .001) for all grade level pair combinations for each variable. Five-yr tracking of adiposity and all health-related physical fitness measurements for boys and girls was generally moderate from early childhood to the upper elementary ages.
Tonya Toole and Judith C. Kretzschmar
The purposes of this review article are to: 1) present empirical studies which have compared the development of motor skills for boys and girls in the early childhood years, 2) present studies which have made gender comparisons for similar and related motor skills for older adults, and 3) make comparisons between the younger and older age group literature in terms of gender and causal factors contributing to gender differences. It was concluded that: 1) young boys and older men are superior to young girls and older women in power-dependent skills. Biological and environmental factors were discussed as they relate to gender differences in one power-dependent skill, throwing, throughout the life-span, and 2) young girls excel at hopping, skipping, hand-eye coordination, limb and body control, and balance tasks compared to young boys. Of these tasks, balance and hand-eye coordination are the only skills which are typically measured for young children and older adults. For balance in older age, the results are equivocal but suggestions were made for understanding why women may have lost their performance advantage in older adulthood. For hand-eye coordination, women are not clearly better than men as they were in youth. Reasons for life-span changes are suggested.
Danielle Nesbitt, Sergio L. Molina, Maria Teresa Cattuzzo, Leah E. Robinson, David Phillips and David Stodden
This paper examined relationships between qualitative (developmental sequences) and quantitative (time) performance in rising from a supine position in early childhood. One hundred twenty two children ranging in age from 3 to 5 years were videotaped for five trials of rising from a supine position. Children’s performance on the supine-to-stand (STS) task was quite variable in terms of both qualitative movement patterns and time (mean = 2.37 s, SD = .60). Results: Component sequences were moderately to strongly correlated with each other (r = .387 to .791). Upper-extremity (r = –.383) and axial (r = –.416) component levels also were inversely correlated with STS time. Results indicated a strong coordinative link between the development of trunk control (i.e., axial movement) and upper-extremity movement levels (r = .791), and together they demonstrated the strongest impact on the ability to rise quickly. These data provide important information relating to a child’s motor development that may have clinical relevance for diagnosis. It provides also a greater understanding on how to improve performance on this task. Future research should examine qualitative and quantitative aspects of STS performance to understand its predictive utility as a lifespan assessment of motor competence and its potential importance as a measure to predict healthrelated variables and functional capability across the lifespan.