The purpose of this pilot study was to demonstrate the impact of a fundamentalmotor-skill (FMS) intervention on the motor skills of 3- to 7-year-old children with autism-like characteristics in an early intervention classroom. A secondary purpose was to qualitatively assess the impact of the program as described by the classroom’s special education teacher. All children in the classroom (N = 5) took part in an FMS intervention for two 6-wk blocks (fall 2013 and winter 2014). Motor-skill proficiency and social skills were assessed at 3 times: baseline, after Block 1 of the intervention, and after Block 2 of the intervention. In addition, an interview was conducted with the classroom teacher after Assessment 3 to draw further insights into the relative success and impact of the program. Results were analyzed through a visual analysis and presented individually. They indicated improvements in the participants’ individual FMS and social-skill scores, possible improvements in declarative knowledge, and an increase in the special education teacher’s readiness to teach FMS; further research with larger, controlled samples is warranted.
Emily Bremer and Meghann Lloyd
Simon Rice, Matt Butterworth, Matti Clements, Daniel Josifovski, Sharyn Arnold, Cecily Schwab, Kerryn Pennell, and Rosemary Purcell
administrators occupying leadership roles in sport and youth mental health and early intervention in mental health sectors, and the authors draw on these experiences as the case is explicated. An international lens is also offered, as the authors bring experience in global mental health initiatives including a
Leanne K. Elliott, Jonathan A. Weiss, and Meghann Lloyd
the family dynamic, as a result of an early motor skill intervention for children with ASD. More research is needed to explore the secondary effects of motor skill interventions on children with ASD, including changes in listening skills and turn-taking skills. Transitions Early interventions that
Janet L. Hauck, Isabella T. Felzer-Kim, and Kathryn L. Gwizdala
al., 2013 ). In addition, it appears that tracking may also be modified through early intervention, as infants with DS who participated in a supported stepping program increased their voluntary PA and also maintained such increases after the program’s end ( Angulo-Barroso et al., 2008 ). Physical activity
Anna K. Melin, Ida A. Heikura, Adam Tenforde, and Margo Mountjoy
and fuel availability around key training sessions and an adequate protein intake. Screening and education with focus on nutrition to maintain optimal EA are important for early intervention and management. Novelty and Practical Application Statement The prevalence of LEA and related clinical
Megan MacDonald, Catherine Lord, and Dale A. Ulrich
In addition to the core characteristics of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), motor skill deficits are present, persistent, and pervasive across age. Although motor skill deficits have been indicated in young children with autism, they have not been included in the primary discussion of early intervention content. One hundred fifty-nine young children with a confirmed diagnosis of ASD (n = 110), PDD-NOS (n = 26), and non-ASD (n = 23) between the ages of 14–33 months participated in this study.1 The univariate general linear model tested the relationship of fine and gross motor skills and social communicative skills (using calibrated autism severity scores). Fine motor and gross motor skills significantly predicted calibrated autism severity (p < .05). Children with weaker motor skills have greater social communicative skill deficits. Future directions and the role of motor skills in early intervention are discussed.
Carol A. Leitschuh and John M. Dunn
The purpose was to determine predictors of the gross motor development quotient of the Test of Gross Motor Development (Ulrich, 1985) for young children prenatally exposed to cocaine/polydrugs. Data were collected on 11 variables hypothesized to influence young children’s development. Participants were 28 children (15 males, 13 females), ages 3 to 6 years, exposed prenatally to cocaine/polydrugs and their nonbiological mothers (i.e., primary care providers). Multiple regression procedures indicated support for the hypothesis that the gross motor development quotient is predicted by the interaction of the child’s effortful control, the primary care provider’s understanding and confidence, and the amount of early intervention service the child received. Correlational analysis supported the hypothesis that with this group of children, early motor skill did not predict delay in the gross motor development quotient at ages 3 to 6 years.
Jo E. Cowden and Bobby L. Eason
PL 99-457 and PL 101-176 have presented a new challenge for adapted physical education. Federal legislation has provided financial incentive for states to increase the intensity and duration of early intervention programs for the infant/toddler/preschool child with disabilities (ITPCD). The present article proposes a conceptual framework for a new subfield, pediatric adapted physical education (PAPE). The origins and essence of federal legislation affecting infants, toddlers, and preschoolers is explained. Because the legislation requires a multi-agency/multidisciplined approach, the role of adapted physical education within the larger context is explained, as is the professional preparation of practitioners of the new subfield. Finally, one state’s initiative is explained to serve as an action plan for other adapted physical education leaders.
L. Kristi Sayers, Jo E. Cowden, and Claudine Sherrill
The purpose of the study was to analyze parents’ perceptions of their participation in a university-directed, parent-implemented, home-based pediatric strength intervention program as (a) one approach to evaluating the effectiveness of a program conducted over a 4-year period with families of infants and toddlers with Down syndrome and (b) a means of deriving guidelines for future early intervention programs. Participants were 22 parents from 11 families of children with Down syndrome; the children ranged in age from 6 to 42 months. Participatory evaluation research, semistructured audio recorded home interviews, and qualitative content analysis were used. The results indicated that the parents (a) perceived themselves as being empowered to implement the program, (b) perceived their expectations about improved motor development of their children had been met, and (c) perceived the program was worthwhile. The parents’ perceptions provided meaningful evaluation data that enabled the development of guidelines for future pediatric strength intervention programs.