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Brittany G. Travers, Heather L. Kirkorian, Matthew J. Jiang, Koeun Choi, Karl S. Rosengren, Porter Pavalko, and Paul Jobin

young child across five domains: communication, gross motor, fine motor, problem solving, and personal-social. We selected this instrument because of its ability to measure development as a function of age-specific milestones across multiple domains during early childhood. This would help inform us of

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Christine W. St. Laurent, Sarah Burkart, Chloe Andre, and Rebecca M.C. Spencer

Early childhood is as an important phase for brain and cognitive development. The early years of life are marked by increased neuroplasticity of the brain and enhancements in cognitive processing and abilities. This age also marks a critical period in the development of school readiness skills and

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Angela Maria Hoyos-Quintero and Herney Andrés García-Perdomo

early childhood influence the behaviors of later stages of life, intervention is vital at these ages, as it is still possible to prevent the acquisition of a sedentary lifestyle with all the diseases this involves. 1 , 2 At the same time, obesity has reached epidemic levels among preschool children

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Thelma S. Horn

, Pearson, Ross, & Braithwaite, 2010 ; Malina, 2001 ) who also noted tracking in these behaviors across subsequent developmental time periods. Thus, differences between children in physical activity and sedentary levels seem to begin in early childhood and track reasonably well into the middle childhood

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Xavier García-Massó, Adrià Marco-Ahulló, Israel Villarrasa-Sapiña, Julio Álvarez-Pitti, and Jose-Luis Bermejo

the effects of obesity in early childhood (between 4–6 years old). Two hypotheses have been postulated to explain the effect of obesity on postural stability. The first is based on the biomechanics of the inverted pendulum model used to explain balance in humans. Following this model, the higher the

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Karen Tonge, Rachel A. Jones, and Anthony D. Okely

High levels of physical activity and low levels of sedentary behavior (SB) are associated with many psychosocial, cognitive, and physical health benefits for children below 5 years of age. 1 It is critical that positive physical activity behaviors develop in early childhood as these behaviors

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Thaynã Alves Bezerra, Paulo Felipe Ribeiro Bandeira, Anastácio Neco de Souza Filho, Cain Craig Truman Clark, Jorge Augusto Pinto Silva Mota, Michael Joseph Duncan, and Clarice Maria de Lucena Martins

Accruing adequate time spent engaging in physical activity (PA) in early childhood is related to several health benefits, 1 , 2 including the development of fundamental motor skills (FMS). 3 Mastery in FMS plays an important role for a positive trajectory of health outcomes, such as body mass

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Xiaoxia Zhang, Xiangli Gu, Tao Zhang, Priscila Caçola, and Jing Wang

The high prevalence of childhood obesity is a significant concern to our society, as more than 30% of young children aged between 3 and 5 years being currently categorized as overweight and obese ( 30 ), and spending 34% to 94% of their day being sedentary ( 16 ). Obesity in early childhood is

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Nicholas M. Edwards, Philip R. Khoury, Heidi J. Kalkwarf, Jessica G. Woo, Randal P. Claytor, and Stephen R. Daniels

Establishing and maintaining healthy physical activity (PA) levels is important throughout life. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent of PA tracking between ages 3 and 7 y. Objective measures of PA (RT3, triaxial accelerometer) were collected every 4 mo from ages 3–7; data from 234 children with PA measures available during each year of age were analyzed. Mean PA (total, moderate/vigorous (MV), and inactivity [IA]) was calculated for each year of age and adjusted for wear time. Correlations with age 3 PA were moderate at age 4 (r = .42−.45) but declined by age 7 (r = .19−.25). After classification into sex-specific tertiles of PA at age 3, boys in the high age 3 MVPA tertile maintained significantly higher PA at all subsequent ages, while girls in the high age 3 MVPA tertile were not significantly higher at age 6 and 7. Boys and girls in the high age 3 IA tertile had significantly higher IA at multiple subsequent years of age (p < .05 at ages 5 and 6). In conclusion, boys who were relatively more active at age 3 remained more active for several subsequent years. These findings highlight early-childhood differences in physical activity patterns between boys and girls.

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Zhiguang Zhang, Eduarda Sousa-Sá, João R. Pereira, Anthony D. Okely, Xiaoqi Feng, and Rute Santos

physical activity from early childhood through youth into adulthood . Med Sci Sports Exerc . 2014 ; 46 : 955 – 962 . 10.1249/MSS.0000000000000181 24121247 4. Carson V , Lee EY , Hewitt L , et al . Systematic review of the relationships between physical activity and health indicators in the