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Brittany G. Travers, Heather L. Kirkorian, Matthew J. Jiang, Koeun Choi, Karl S. Rosengren, Porter Pavalko, and Paul Jobin

young child across five domains: communication, gross motor, fine motor, problem solving, and personal-social. We selected this instrument because of its ability to measure development as a function of age-specific milestones across multiple domains during early childhood. This would help inform us of

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Christine W. St. Laurent, Sarah Burkart, Chloe Andre, and Rebecca M.C. Spencer

Early childhood is as an important phase for brain and cognitive development. The early years of life are marked by increased neuroplasticity of the brain and enhancements in cognitive processing and abilities. This age also marks a critical period in the development of school readiness skills and

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Otávio Amaral de Andrade Leão, Gregore Iven Mielke, Pedro Curi Hallal, John Cairney, Jorge Mota, Marlos Rodrigues Domingues, Joseph Murray, and Andréa Dâmaso Bertoldi

activity during childhood is an important predictor of physical activity levels during adolescence and adulthood, making early childhood an optimal developmental window for interventions. 7 – 9 To date, systematic reviews of observational studies have shown that physical activity and participation in

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Angela Maria Hoyos-Quintero and Herney Andrés García-Perdomo

early childhood influence the behaviors of later stages of life, intervention is vital at these ages, as it is still possible to prevent the acquisition of a sedentary lifestyle with all the diseases this involves. 1 , 2 At the same time, obesity has reached epidemic levels among preschool children

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Thelma S. Horn

, Pearson, Ross, & Braithwaite, 2010 ; Malina, 2001 ) who also noted tracking in these behaviors across subsequent developmental time periods. Thus, differences between children in physical activity and sedentary levels seem to begin in early childhood and track reasonably well into the middle childhood

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Xavier García-Massó, Adrià Marco-Ahulló, Israel Villarrasa-Sapiña, Julio Álvarez-Pitti, and Jose-Luis Bermejo

the effects of obesity in early childhood (between 4–6 years old). Two hypotheses have been postulated to explain the effect of obesity on postural stability. The first is based on the biomechanics of the inverted pendulum model used to explain balance in humans. Following this model, the higher the

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Karen Tonge, Rachel A. Jones, and Anthony D. Okely

High levels of physical activity and low levels of sedentary behavior (SB) are associated with many psychosocial, cognitive, and physical health benefits for children below 5 years of age. 1 It is critical that positive physical activity behaviors develop in early childhood as these behaviors

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Thaynã Alves Bezerra, Paulo Felipe Ribeiro Bandeira, Anastácio Neco de Souza Filho, Cain Craig Truman Clark, Jorge Augusto Pinto Silva Mota, Michael Joseph Duncan, and Clarice Maria de Lucena Martins

Accruing adequate time spent engaging in physical activity (PA) in early childhood is related to several health benefits, 1 , 2 including the development of fundamental motor skills (FMS). 3 Mastery in FMS plays an important role for a positive trajectory of health outcomes, such as body mass

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Xiaoxia Zhang, Xiangli Gu, Tao Zhang, Priscila Caçola, and Jing Wang

The high prevalence of childhood obesity is a significant concern to our society, as more than 30% of young children aged between 3 and 5 years being currently categorized as overweight and obese ( 30 ), and spending 34% to 94% of their day being sedentary ( 16 ). Obesity in early childhood is

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Avril Johnstone, Paul McCrorie, Rita Cordovil, Ingunn Fjørtoft, Susanna Iivonen, Boris Jidovtseff, Frederico Lopes, John J. Reilly, Hilary Thomson, Valerie Wells, and Anne Martin

Traditional Early Childhood Education (ECE) is typically characterized by predominately man-made structures, such as swings, climbing frames, and slides in the playground with very few natural features integrated. 1 Children who attend traditional ECE spend only a small amount of their time