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Courteney L. Benjamin, William M. Adams, Ryan M. Curtis, Yasuki Sekiguchi, Gabrielle E.W. Giersch and Douglas J. Casa

team sports, females reported better sleep quality than males; however, 13% of females in this study had “fairly bad” or “very bad” sleep quality as rated by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index ( Mah et al., 2018 ). In addition to these known sex differences, early morning training sessions negatively

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Sigridur L. Gudmundsdottir

reported to sleep less than team sport athletes ( 17 ). Early morning training sessions (≤6 AM) may have negative effects on sleep duration. Among adults, total sleep time (TST) has been found to be less than 5 hours for sessions starting between 5 and 6 AM, but increasing to over 7 hours for sessions

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Sarah Kölling, Rob Duffield, Daniel Erlacher, Ranel Venter and Shona L. Halson

such as relaxation. The scheduling of competitions is not directly modifiable but can be anticipated with daytime naps (see below) or delayed recovery sessions on the following day. Training schedules, especially early morning training, are also common factors that might lead to reduced sleep duration

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Shannon O’Donnell, Christopher M. Beaven and Matthew Driller

afternoon naps . Sleep Biol Rhythms . 2008 ; 6 ( 3 ): 187 – 189 . doi:10.1111/j.1479-8425.2008.00350.x 10.1111/j.1479-8425.2008.00350.x 4. Sargent C , Halson S , Roach G . Sleep or swim? Early-morning training severely restricts the amount of sleep obtained by elite swimmers . Eur J Sport Sci

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Eduardo Macedo Penna, Edson Filho, Samuel Penna Wanner, Bruno Teobaldo Campos, Gabriel Resende Quinan, Thiago Teixeira Mendes, Mitchell Robert Smith and Luciano Sales Prado

of class, mental fatigue may be higher during an exam week at school, thus negatively impacting athletic performance. Another important question regarding the swimming context in general and mental fatigue in particular pertains to the culture of early morning training sessions. Chronic reduced sleep

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Benita J. Lalor, Shona L. Halson, Jacqueline Tran, Justin G. Kemp and Stuart J. Cormack

and high altitude: a comparison of sea-level natives and high-altitude natives . Br J Sports Med . 2013 ; 47 : i114 – i120 . PubMed doi:10.1136/bjsports-2013-092843 24282197 10.1136/bjsports-2013-092843 24. Sargent C , Halson S , Roach GD . Sleep or swim? Early-morning training severely

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Haresh T. Suppiah, Chee Yong Low, Gabriel Choong and Michael Chia

has shown the converse effects of sleep extension on performance. 12 Despite the potential of nocturnal sleep extension on performance, the magnitude of nocturnal sleep duration increase required to elicit performance changes may be impractical for school-going youth athletes due to early morning

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Júlio A. Costa, João Brito, Fábio Y. Nakamura, Eduardo M. Oliveira, Ovidio P. Costa and António N. Rebelo

.1080/02640414.2015.1135249 12. Sargent C , Halson S , Roach GD . Sleep or swim? Early-morning training severely restricts the amount of sleep obtained by elite swimmers . Eur J Sport Sci . 2014 ; 14 ( suppl 1 ): 310 – 315 . doi:10.1080/17461391.2012.696711 10.1080/17461391.2012.696711 13. Robey E , Dawson B

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Craig Pickering and Jozo Grgic

disruption caused by early morning training sessions and jet lag ( Arendt, 2009 ; Cook et al., 2011 ). Athletes have a variety of options available when it comes to selecting how to obtain their caffeine dose. Although the majority of caffeine research studies utilize caffeine anhydrous, typically in tablet