’s own performance was also expected. This indirect relationship could lead to a greater need to present a perfect body image to others and develop disordered eating behaviors, understood as maladaptive defensive strategies used to deal with perceptions of inferiority and poor performance. Material and
Carolina Paixão, Sara Oliveira, and Cláudia Ferreira
Karen A. Smith, Robert J. Naughton, Carl Langan-Evans, and Kiara Lewis
–5). Typical responses include: “I avoid eating when I am hungry” and “I feel that food controls my life.” The total of the all responses provides the individual’s EAT-26 score, with a score of ≥20 considered symptomatic of disordered eating behavior ( Abbott et al., 2021 ). Data Analysis This study used a
Florian Manneville, Serge Briançon, Karine Legrand, Johanne Langlois, Edith Lecomte, Abdou Y. Omorou, and Francis Guillemin
healthy behaviors are overrepresented in adolescents with high SES and vary between boys and girls, with a higher level of PA among boys than girls and healthier eating behavior (EB) among girls than boys. 11 – 17 , 18 (p18) Bambra 19 proposed a cultural and behavioral theory to explain health
Lori M. Cox, Christopher D. Lantz, and Jerry L. Mayhew
Early identification of potentially harmful eating patterns is critical in the effective remediation of such behaviors. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the degree lo which various factors including gender, family history, and athletic status predict disordered eating behavior; social physique anxiety and percent body fat were added as potential predictor variables. The eating behaviors of student-athletes and nonathlete students were also compared. One hundred eighty undergraduate students (males = 49, females =131) provided demographic information and completed the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) and the Social Physique Anxiety Scale (SPAS). Stepwise multiple-regression analysis indicated that social physique anxiety, gender, and body fat (%Fat) combined to predict 34% of disordered eating behaviors: EAT = 0.921 SPA - 1.05 %Fat + 10.95 Gender (1 = M. 2 = F) - 17.82 (R 2 = .34, SE = 4.68). A one-way ANOVA comparing ihe eating behaviors of athletes and nonathletes revealed no significant difference between these groups.
Pablo M. García-Rovés, Nicolàs Terrados, Serafina Fernández, and Angeles M. Patterson
The dietary intake and eating behavior of a group of professional elite road cyclists during high intensity training and competition was compared. Their eating pattern consisted of several snacks throughout the race or training, a meal eaten no later than 1 hr postexercise, supper, and breakfast. Protein intake showed a significant difference between evaluation times expressed in three ways: per total amount intake, by kg body weight, and percentage of energy supplied. Due to the high energy intake of these cyclists during training and competition (22.9 ± 1.5, 22.4 ± 1.7 MJ, respectively), they presented a high consumption of each macronutrient both in competition and in training. The eating behavior of these athletes was similar during breakfast (possibility to choose from among approximately 25 foods) and supper (set menu), with variation in the energy intake and a similar relative contribution of the different macronutrients. In general, it is possible to consider the professional road cyclists as a homogeneous group with a similar nutrition intake, eating habits, and nutritional needs throughout the more demanding periods of the season. Furthermore, differences found in protein intake between periods could not be explained by differences in the food available in competition and training periods.
Rachel Martin, Ivanka Prichard, Amanda D. Hutchinson, and Carlene Wilson
This study examined the potential mediating roles of mindfulness and body awareness in the relationship between exercise and eating behavior. Female exercisers (N = 159) recruited from fitness centers, yoga centers, and the community completed a questionnaire incorporating measures of exercise behavior, body awareness, trait mindfulness, mindful eating, dietary intake, and disordered eating symptoms. Participation in yoga was associated with significantly lower disordered eating (mediated by body awareness), whereas the amount of time spent participating in cardio-based exercise was associated with greater eating disturbance. The relationships between amount of exercise and actual food intake were not mediated by trait mindfulness or body awareness. The differential findings for dietary intake and disordered eating indicate that the body awareness cultivated in different forms of exercise may be more beneficial for clinical populations or those at risk for eating disorders than for modifying actual dietary intake in the general population.
Mary Yannakoulia, Marietta Sitara, and Antonia-Leda Matalas
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention program that combined nutrition education and prevention of disordered eating in a group of female professional dance students. Thirty-two dancers, aged 19-25 years, took part in the program. Evaluation was done by a series of questionnaires that participants were asked to complete on 3 occasions. Assessments of body composition and dietary intake were also performed. Significant improvements in nutrition knowledge as well as a decrease in abnormal eating behavior and dietary restraint were observed at post intervention. At 6-month follow-up, the positive effects were maintained and further benefits were recorded; only nutrition knowledge showed a minor decline. Participants who were at higher risk for adopting abnormal eating behavior benefited the most from the program. These findings encourage the implementation of intervention programs in groups of young women that experience particular pressures for controlling body weight.
Edith Filaire, Patrick Treuvelot, and Hechmi Toumi
This study explores the prevalence of disordered eating attitudes in a sample of male first-year university students engaged in a physical education program and examines the relationships between emotional intelligence, coping, and emotional eating in relation to disordered-eating (DE) attitudes. A total of 140 students completed the following questionnaires: the Eating Attitudes Test, the Bar-On Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire, the Coping Inventory Stress Scale, and the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire. The number of participants represented 80% of the male students registered in this discipline at the authors’ university. Twenty percent of students presented DE attitudes even though they were of normal weight. The Bar-On EQ-I results indicated that students with DE attitudes had lower levels of emotional intelligence (EI) scores than students without DE attitudes (control group). Moreover, they scored higher than the control group on coping styles such as avoidance-oriented coping, emotion-oriented coping, and emotional eating. The DE group presented a positive correlation between DE attitudes symptoms and both avoidance- and emotion-oriented coping but a negative correlation between DE attitudes and task-oriented coping. There was also a significant negative correlation between DE attitudes and EI score. Another result from this group indicated an association between EI score and emotional-eating score (p < .05, r = –.44) and also a positive correlation between emotion-oriented coping and emotional eating (p < .01, r = .47). The findings highlight future research potential on the role of emotions and EI in DE symptoms, which may be beneficial in the context of collaborative care management intervention.
Laurie Stickler, Trisha Armstrong, Alyssa Polso, and Melissa Smith
Low energy availability has been identified through research as the cornerstone of the female athlete triad, yet reasons for nutritional choices among female collegiate athletes are poorly understood.
To explore the perspectives of female collegiate cross country runners on eating behaviors and attitudes toward health.
Phenomenologic qualitative study with individual, semistructured interviews.
Ten collegiate female cross country runners, ages 18–22, participated in the study. All interviews were audiotaped then transcribed. Three researchers independently coded data and developed themes and subthemes before meeting and negotiating findings.
The following four themes were identified: health behaviors, nutritional knowledge, internal and external factors, and health attitudes.
This study contributes to understanding “the why” behind health behaviors of female collegiate cross country runners. This developmental understanding may assist in interpreting the behavioral causes of low energy availability; thus, both management and prevention of the triad may be aided by this information.
Lisa Chaba, Stéphanie Scoffier-Mériaux, Fabienne d’Arripe-Longueville, and Vanessa Lentillon-Kaestner
( 2009 ), which integrates the self-determination theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 2000 ) and the theory of planned behavior (TPB; Ajzen & Madden, 1986 ). Eating Disorders in Male Bodybuilders and Runners Eating disorders refer to problematic eating behaviors that have been described in the Diagnostic and