exercise in terms of the kinematic and kinetic variables associated with the movements and the muscle actions involved. 8 , 9 Among other methodologies, eccentric overload (EOL) exercise has consistently proven to be effective for acutely improving horizontal and vertical jumping performance. 5 , 10 , 11
Kevin L. de Keijzer, Stuart A. McErlain-Naylor, Antonio Dello Iacono, and Marco Beato
Marco Beato, Stuart A. McErlain-Naylor, Israel Halperin, and Antonio Dello Iacono
This review summarizes the current evidence regarding postactivation potentiation (PAP) strategies using flywheel eccentric overload (EOL) exercises. The first section covers the PAP phenomenon, its underpinning neurophysiological mechanisms, and commonly used PAP protocols. The second section
Rafael Sabido, Jose Luis Hernández-Davó, and Gabriel T. Pereyra-Gerber
quality of life (eg, strength and power) in older people. In addition, the use of eccentric overload training (EOT) has shown its efficacy in injury prevention, 5 – 7 recovery from tendon injuries, 8 and the development of muscular hypertrophy. 9 Existing research has shown that the use of flywheel
Julio Tous-Fajardo, Oliver Gonzalo-Skok, José Luis Arjol-Serrano, and Per Tesch
To examine the effects of a novel isoinertial eccentric-overload and vibration training (EVT) paradigm on change-ofdirection (COD) speed and multiple performance tests applicable to soccer.
Twenty-four young male players were assigned to an EVT (n = 12) or conventional combined (CONV, n = 12) group, once weekly for 11 wk. EVT consisted of 2 sets of 6–10 repetitions in 5 specific and 3 complementary exercises. CONV used comparable volume (2 sets of 6–10 reps in 3 sequences of 3 exercises) of conventional combined weight, plyometric, and linear speed exercises. Pre- and postintervention tests included 25-m sprint with 4 × 45° COD every 5th m (V-cut test), 10- and 30-m sprints, repeat-sprint ability, countermovement jump, and hopping (RJ5).
Group comparison showed very likely to likely better performance for EVT in the COD (effect size [ES] = 1.42), 30-m (ES = 0.98), 10-m (ES = 1.17), and average power (ES = 0.69) and jump height (ES = 0.69) during RJ5. There was a large (r = –.55) relationship between the increase in average hopping power and the reduced V-cut time.
As EVT, not CONV, improved not only COD ability but also linear speed and reactive jumping, this “proof-of-principle” study suggests that this novel exercise paradigm performed once weekly could serve as a viable adjunct to improve performance tasks specific to soccer.
Oliver Gonzalo-Skok, Julio Tous-Fajardo, Carlos Valero-Campo, César Berzosa, Ana Vanessa Bataller, José Luis Arjol-Serrano, Gerard Moras, and Alberto Mendez-Villanueva
To analyze the effects of 2 different eccentric-overload training (EOT) programs, using a rotational conical pulley, on functional performance in team-sport players. A traditional movement paradigm (ie, squat) including several sets of 1 bilateral and vertical movement was compared with a novel paradigm including a different exercise in each set of unilateral and multi-directional movements.
Forty-eight amateur or semiprofessional team-sport players were randomly assigned to an EOT program including either the same bilateral vertical (CBV, n = 24) movement (squat) or different unilateral multidirectional (VUMD, n = 24) movements. Training programs consisted of 6 sets of 1 exercise (CBV) or 1 set of 6 exercises (VUMD) × 6–10 repetitions with 3 min of passive recovery between sets and exercises, biweekly for 8 wk. Functional-performance assessment included several change-of-direction (COD) tests, a 25-m linear-sprint test, unilateral multidirectional jumping tests (ie, lateral, horizontal, and vertical), and a bilateral vertical-jump test.
Within-group analysis showed substantial improvements in all tests in both groups, with VUMD showing more robust adaptations in pooled COD tests and lateral/horizontal jumping, whereas the opposite occurred in CBV respecting linear sprinting and vertical jumping. Between-groups analyses showed substantially better results in lateral jumps (ES = 0.21), left-leg horizontal jump (ES = 0.35), and 10-m COD with right leg (ES = 0.42) in VUMD than in CBV. In contrast, left-leg countermovement jump (ES = 0.26) was possibly better in CBV than in VUMD.
Eight weeks of EOT induced substantial improvements in functional-performance tests, although the force-vector application may play a key role to develop different and specific functional adaptations.
Tibor Hortobágyi, Jeff Money, Donghai Zheng, Ronald Dudek, David Fraser, and Lynis Dohm
This study compared muscle adaptations after 7 days of exercise with eccentric-overload (EO) or standard (ST) resistive training in young (20 years) and older (69 years) adults. Young EO and ST gained 103 and 30 N, respectively, and older EO and ST gained 63 and 25 N of strength, respectively (all p < .05). Types I and IIa MHC mRNA levels were not altered, but Type IIx levels decreased 31% and 63% after the first and seventh exercise bouts, respectively, in young and decreased 30% after the seventh bout in older participants (all p < 05), independent of loading type. Type 11a fiber increased. Type IIx decreased, and Type IIa increased in both age groups independent of loading type (all p < 05). Electron microscopy revealed no myofibrillar disruption in young or older muscle. These data suggest that short-term EO produces larger strength gains than does ST without muscle-cell disruption or loading-type-specific changes in MHC mRNA isoforms in young and older skeletal muscle.
Moisés de Hoyo, Marco Pozzo, Borja Sañudo, Luis Carrasco, Oliver Gonzalo-Skok, Sergio Domínguez-Cobo, and Eduardo Morán-Camacho
To analyze the effect of an eccentric-overload training program (ie, half-squat and leg-curl exercises using flywheel ergometers) with individualized load on muscle-injury incidence and severity and performance in junior elite soccer players.
Thirty-six young players (U-17 to U-19) were recruited and assigned to an experimental (EXP) or control group (CON). The training program consisted of 1 or 2 sessions/wk (3–6 sets with 6 repetitions) during 10 wk. The outcome measured included muscle injury (incidence per 1000 h of exposure and injury severity) and performance tests (countermovement jump [CMJ], 10-m and 20-m sprint test).
Between-groups results showed a likely (ES: 0.94) lower number of days of absence per injury and a possible decrement of incidence per 1000 h of match play in EXP than in CON. Regarding muscle performance, a substantial better improvement (likely to very likely) was found in 20-m sprint time (ES: 0.37), 10-m flying-sprint time (ES: 0.77), and CMJ (ES: 0.79) for EXP than for CON. Within-group analysis showed an unclear effect in each variable in CON. Conversely, substantial improvements were obtained in CMJ (ES: 0.58), 20-m sprint time (ES: 0.32), 10-m flying-sprint time (ES: 0.95), and injury severity (ES: 0.59) in EXP. Furthermore, a possible decrement in total injury incidence was also reported in EXP.
The eccentric-based program led to a reduction in muscle-injury incidence and severity and showed improvements in common soccer tasks such as jumping ability and linear-sprinting speed.
F. Javier Núñez, Luis J. Suarez-Arrones, Paul Cater, and Alberto Mendez-Villanueva
The aim of this study was to examine the kinematics and kinetics (force, velocity, and acceleration) and blood lactate concentration with the VersaPulley (VP) device in comparison with free-weight (FW) exercise at a similar external load. Fifteen rugby players randomly performed 2 training sessions of 6 sets of 6 repetitions with 20 s of recovery between sets of the high-pull exercise with the VP and the FW. The training sessions were separated by 72 h. Barbell displacement (cm), peak velocity (m/s), peak acceleration (m/s2), mean propulsive velocity (m/s), mean propulsive acceleration (m/s2), propulsive phase (%), and mean and maximal force (N) were continuously recorded during each repetition. Blood lactate concentration was measured after each training session (end) and 3 min and 5 min later. Barbell displacement (+4.8%, small ES), peak velocity (+4.5% small ES), mean propulsive acceleration (+8.8%, small ES), and eccentric force (+26.7, large ES) were substantially higher with VP than with FW. Blood lactate concentration was also greater after the VP exercise (end +32.9%, 3 min later +36%, 5 min later +33.8%; large ES). Maximal concentric force was substantially higher with FW than VP during the 6th set (+6.4%, small ES). In the cohort and exercise investigated in the current study, VP training can be considered an efficient training device to induce an accentuated eccentric overload and augmented metabolic demands (ie, blood lactate concentration).
Julio Tous-Fajardo, Rafael A. Maldonado, José M. Quintana, Marco Pozzo, and Per A. Tesch
Manuel Santiago Martin, Fernando Pareja Blanco, and Eduardo Saez De Villarreal
-land and in-water-specific strength training, together with plyometric or ballistic training to optimize WP-specific performance. As an alternative to the traditional and ballistic training methods, eccentric-overload training using flywheel or versa-pulley inertial devices has been suggested as another