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Richard A. Brindle, David Ebaugh, and Clare E. Milner

strengthening is a common component of treatment. 3 In a side-lying hip abductor strength test, an adduction force is applied to the patient’s limb through a handheld dynamometer that either matches or exceeds the patient’s maximum isometric force. In a hip abductor eccentric strength test or “break test,” the

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Diulian Muniz Medeiros, César Marchiori, and Bruno Manfredini Baroni

factors for HSI in an attempt to contribute to the development of prevention programs. The risk factors can be divided in nonmodifiable (eg, previous injuries, age, and genetics) and modifiable (eg, flexibility, fatigue, eccentric strength, and fascicle length). 27 , 28 Knee flexors eccentric strength 29

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Eduardo Lusa Cadore, Miriam González-Izal, Rafael Grazioli, Igor Setuain, Ronei Silveira Pinto, and Mikel Izquierdo

hamstring and quadriceps strength (ie, concentric and eccentric) and resistance to fatigue are important mechanisms for improving functional knee status in high level and recreational athletes. 3 Eccentric strength training has been demonstrated to be a substantial intervention for promoting neuromuscular

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Daniel D. Cohen, Bingnan Zhao, Brian Okwera, Martyn J. Matthews, and Anne Delextrat

Purpose:

To evaluate the effect of simulated soccer on the hamstrings eccentric torque-angle profile and angle of peak torque (APTeccH), and on the hamstrings:quadriceps torque ratio at specific joint angles (ASHecc:Qcon).

Methods:

The authors assessed dominant-limb isokinetic concentric and eccentric knee flexion and concentric knee extension at 120°/s in 9 semiprofessional male soccer players immediately before and after they completed the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LIST).

Results:

The LIST resulted in significant decreases in eccentric hamstrings torque at 60°, 50°, and 10° and a significant (21.8%) decrease in ASHecc:Qcon at 10° (P < .05). APTeccH increased from 7.1° ± 1.0° to 18.8° ± 4.2° (P < .05). Eccentric hamstrings peak torque significantly declined from 185.1 ± 70.4 N·m pre-LIST to 150.9 ± 58.5 N·m post-LIST (P = .002), but there were no significant changes in hamstrings or quadriceps concentric peak torque (P = .312, .169, respectively).

Conclusions:

Simulated soccer results in a selective loss of eccentric hamstrings torque and hamstrings-to-quadriceps muscle balance at an extended joint position and a shift in the eccentric hamstrings APT to a shorter length, changes that could increase vulnerability to hamstrings injury. These findings suggest that injury-risk screening could be improved by evaluating the eccentric hamstrings torque-angle profile and hamstrings strength-endurance and that the development of hamstrings fatigue resistance and long-length eccentric strength may reduce injury incidence.

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Talita Molinari, Tainara Steffens, Cristian Roncada, Rodrigo Rodrigues, and Caroline P. Dias

after eccentric training compared with concentric training ( Roig et al., 2009 ). Roig et al. ( 2009 ) suggested that training in which there is a predominance of an eccentric muscle action may be associated with increases in total and eccentric strength in adults when compared with training with a

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Helmi Chaabene, Yassine Negra, Jason Moran, Olaf Prieske, Senda Sammoud, Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo, and Urs Granacher

physical performance in team handball is of great importance. Resistance training is an effective way of increasing muscular strength in young females. 4 However, it has previously been shown that eccentric strength training is more effective than single-mode concentric or combined concentric

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Tomas Vetrovsky, Dan Omcirk, Jan Malecek, Petr Stastny, Michal Steffl, and James J. Tufano

for each set. The greater value of the two sets was then used for analysis. Quadriceps strength In addition to isometric strength (60° of knee flexion), isokinetic concentric and eccentric strength (expressed as peak torque) of the dominant limb quadriceps were tested at 60°/s and 180°/s. Prior to

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Eleftherios Kellis, Spiros Kellis, Vasilios Gerodimos, and Vasiliki Manou

The reliable examination of isokinetic parameters in young athletes is important for the establishment of appropriate strength testing protocols. The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability of peak moments, non-preferred/preferred leg and reciprocal ratios during isokinetic knee efforts in young soccer players. Thirteen circumpubertal (age = 13.0 ± 0.4 years) soccer players performed maximum knee extension and flexion efforts at 30, 120 and 180°·s1 in two occasions, a week apart. The reliability of the peak moments was high, with reliability coefficients ranging from 0.71 to 0.98. The non-preferred/preferred leg and reciprocal ratios demonstrated moderate to high reliability (coefficients ranged from 0.42 to 0.87). The reliable examination of moments of force and ratio measurements during eccentric tests and at fast angular velocities in young soccer players requires extensive familiarization of the subjects prior to the main test.

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Mathieu Lacome, Simon Avrillon, Yannick Cholley, Ben M. Simpson, Gael Guilhem, and Martin Buchheit

.80) 30/33/37 Unclear Knee-flexors eccentric strength, N 326.4 (48.1) 325.3 (26.2) 0.4 (10.2) 0.03 (0.76) 35/35/30 Unclear Expected knee-flexors strength, N 291.4 (20.5) 286.7 (23.0) −1.7 (6.3) −0.21 (0.80) 19/30/51 Unclear Δ Strength vs expected, % 11.7 (12.1) 14.1 (12.4) −1.4 (46.2) −0.03 (0.88) 33

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Thales M. Medeiros, João B. Ribeiro-Alvares, Carolina G. Fritsch, Gabriel S. Oliveira, Lucas Severo-Silveira, Evangelos Pappas, and Bruno M. Baroni

preventable, and a recent meta-analysis by Al Attar et al 15 suggests that football teams including the Nordic hamstring exercise (NHE) could reduce HSI rates by up to 51%. This protective effect has been attributed to increased hamstring eccentric strength, 16 – 20 improved H:Q ratio, 16 , 18 and enhanced