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Christopher Michael Brogden, Lewis Gough, and Adam Kelly

sports such as soccer are characterized by accelerations and fast changes of direction 8 thus increasing the possibility of HSI due to the enhanced eccentric forces applied to the hamstring musculature. These enhanced forces are often experienced during high-speed running, which is commonly acknowledged

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Yanita McLeay, Stephen R Stannard, Toby Mundel, Andrew Foskett, and Matthew Barnes

This study was designed to investigate the effects of alcohol consumption on recovery of muscle force when consumed immediately postexercise in young females. Eight young women completed 300 maximal eccentric actions of the quadriceps femoris muscle on an isokinetic dynamometer on two occasions in a randomized, cross-over design after which an alcoholic beverage (0.88g ethanol/kg body weight) or an iso-caloric placebo was consumed. Maximal isokinetic (concentric and eccentric) torque and isometric tension produced across the knee were measured in both the exercised and control leg predamage, 36 hr post, and 60 hr post damage. Venous blood creatine kinase (CK) activity and muscle soreness ratings were taken before damage and once per day to 60 hr post damage. Significant differences were observed between the exercised and control leg for maximal concentric, and eccentric torque and isometric tension (p < .05). A near significant Treatment × Time interaction was observed for isometric tension (p = .077), but not for concentric or eccentric torque. No main effects of treatment (alcohol) or interactions with Time × Leg or Leg × Treatment were observed. Perceived muscle soreness during box stepping and squatting showed significant time effects (p < .05), and CK activity did not significantly change. Our results indicate that the consumption of 0.88g ethanol/kg body weight following eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage does not affect recovery in the days following damage in females.

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Elizabeth Thompson, Theo H. Versteegh, Tom J. Overend, Trevor B. Birmingham, and Anthony A. Vandervoort

Our purpose was to describe heart rate (HR), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), and perceived exertion (RPE) responses to submaximal isokinetic concentric (CON) and eccentric (ECC) exercise at the same absolute torque output in older adults. Peak torques for ECC and CON knee extension were determined in healthy older males (n = 13) and females (n = 7). Subjects then performed separate, randomly ordered, 2-min bouts of CON and ECC exercise. Heart rate and MAP increased (p < .001) from resting values throughout both exercise bouts. CON exercise elicited a significantly greater cardiovascular response than ECC exercise after 60 s. Peak HR, MAP, and RPE after CON exercise were greater than after ECC exercise (p < .01). At the same absolute torque output, isokinetic CON knee extension exercise resulted in a significantly greater level of cardiovascular stress than ECC exercise. These results are relevant to resistance testing and exercise in older people.

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Helene Pedersen, Atle Hole Saeterbakken, Markus Vagle, Marius Steiro Fimland, and Vidar Andersen

eccentric to the concentric contractions. The player has to be very strong in the hamstring muscles to be able to perform the ascending movement; hence, in most cases, the Nordic hamstring is performed as a purely eccentric exercise. 8 A possibility for reducing the external load is to push with the arms

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Marco Beato, Sergio Maroto-Izquierdo, Anthony N. Turner, and Chris Bishop

, readers are addressed to the following article by Fanchini et al. 8 Eccentric Training The high presence of eccentric actions in soccer, such as decelerations, changes of direction, and sprints, has generated interest in eccentric exercise among S&C coaches and medical staff, especially since a high

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Nicola Giovanelli, Lea Biasutti, Desy Salvadego, Hailu K. Alemayehu, Bruno Grassi, and Stefano Lazzer

uphill and downhill sections. 1 Whereas uphill sections stress to a greater extent aerobic metabolism, in downhill sections, as a consequence of the repeated and forceful eccentric contractions, muscle damage and inflammation responses ensue. 2 In the past few years, several physiological aspects of

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Justin J. Merrigan, James J. Tufano, Michael Falzone, and Margaret T. Jones

, which require long rest periods (eg, 7–10 min) to counter the fatigue. 1 Accentuated eccentric loading (AEL), 2 , 3 where eccentric loads are greater in comparison to concentric loads has been shown to increase force, velocity, and power during an exercise 2 , 4 without the need for extended rest

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Eduardo Lusa Cadore, Miriam González-Izal, Rafael Grazioli, Igor Setuain, Ronei Silveira Pinto, and Mikel Izquierdo

hamstring and quadriceps strength (ie, concentric and eccentric) and resistance to fatigue are important mechanisms for improving functional knee status in high level and recreational athletes. 3 Eccentric strength training has been demonstrated to be a substantial intervention for promoting neuromuscular

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Mathieu Lacome, Simon Avrillon, Yannick Cholley, Ben M. Simpson, Gael Guilhem, and Martin Buchheit

large-to-very large increases in knee-flexor strength (13%–78%) in recreational athletes. 11 Very large increases in BFlh fascicle length (∼14%, range 5%–34%) were also reported following eccentric training. 12 However, these protocols included high-volume training (2–3 times/wk, 30–50 repetitions

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Cion Wren, Marco Beato, Stuart A. McErlain-Naylor, Antonio Dello Iacono, and Kevin L. de Keijzer

ergometer (with a harness/attachment), and thereby generates angular momentum that must be decelerated during the eccentric phase. 11 A key advantage to flywheel training is the ability to achieve an eccentric overload, 12 , 13 which is an eccentric output relatively greater to the precedent concentric