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Michael Ashford, Andrew Abraham and Jamie Poolton

empirical work, there is no single view on how players make decisions ( Araújo et al., 2019 ; Raab & Araújo, 2019 ; Williams & Jackson, 2019 ); instead, three, supposedly distinct, research perspectives have emerged: information processing, ecological psychology , and naturalistic decision making

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Marco J. Konings and Florentina J. Hettinga

Purpose: In real-life competitive situations, athletes are required to continuously make decisions about how and when to invest their available energy resources. This study attempted to identify how different competitive environments invite elite short-track speed skaters to modify their pacing behavior during head-to-head competition. Methods: Lap times of elite 500-, 1000- and 1500-m short-track speed skating competitions between 2011 and 2016 (N = 34,095 races) were collected. Log-transformed lap and finishing times were analyzed with mixed linear models. The fixed effects in the model were sex, season, stage of competition, start position, competition importance, event number per tournament, number of competitors per race, altitude, and time qualification. The random effects of the model were athlete identity and the residual (within-athlete race-to-race variation). Separate analyses were performed for each event. Results: Several competitive environments, such as the number of competitors in a race (a higher number of competitors evoked most likely a faster initial pace; coefficient of variation [CV] = 1.9–9.3%), the stage of competition (likely to most likely, a slower initial pace was demonstrated in finals; CV = −1.4% to 2.0%), the possibility of time qualification (most likely a faster initial pace; CV = 2.6–5.0%), and competition importance (most likely faster races at the Olympics; CV = 1.3–3.5%), altered the pacing decisions of elite skaters in 1000- and 1500-m events. Stage of competition and start position affected 500-m pacing behavior. Conclusions: As demonstrated in this study, different competitive environments evoked modifications in pacing behavior, in particular in the initial phase of the race, emphasizing the importance of athlete–environment interactions, especially during head-to-head competitions.

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Thomas A. Stoffregen

generated by head movement . Ecological Psychology, 6 , 219 – 238 . doi:10.1207/s15326969eco0603_4 10.1207/s15326969eco0603_4 Clark , A. ( 1999 ). An embodied cognitive science? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 3 , 345 – 351 . PubMed doi:10.1016/S1364-6613(99)01361-3 10.1016/S1364

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Joshua Nimmins, Ben Strafford and Joseph Stone

.880262 Jacobs , D.M. , & Michaels , C.F. ( 2007 ). Direct learning . Ecological Psychology, 19 ( 4 ), 321 – 349 . doi:10.1080/10407410701432337 10.1080/10407410701432337 Kachel , K. , Buszard , T. , & Reid , M. ( 2015 ). The effect of ball compression on the match-play characteristics of elite

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Martyn Rothwell, Joseph Stone and Keith Davids

:10.1111/j.1467-9280.1994.tb00633.x 10.1111/j.1467-9280.1994.tb00633.x Gibson , J.J. ( 1979 ). The theory of affordances . In R.E. Shaw & J. Bransford (Eds.), Perceiving, acting, and knowing: Toward an ecological psychology . Hillsdale, NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates . Gilbert , W

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Lana M. Pfaff and Michael E. Cinelli

), 534 – 549 . PubMed doi:10.1016/j.humov.2010.08.003 10.1016/j.humov.2010.08.003 Hirose , N. , & Nishio , A. ( 2001 ). The process of adaptation to perceiving new action capabilities . Ecological Psychology, 13 ( 1 ), 49 – 69 . doi:10.1207/S15326969ECO1301_3 10.1207/S15326969ECO1301_3 Knowles

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Philip W. Fink, Sarah P. Shultz, Eva D’Hondt, Matthieu Lenoir and Andrew P. Hills

multifractality, cascades, and interactivity for empirical time series in ecological science . Ecological Psychology, 25 ( 1 ), 1 – 62 . doi:10.1080/10407413.2013.753804 10.1080/10407413.2013.753804 King , A.C. , Challis , J.H. , Bartok , C. , Costigan , F.A. , & Newell , K.M. ( 2012 ). Obesity

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Inge Tuitert, Tim A. Valk, Egbert Otten, Laura Golenia and Raoul M. Bongers

interest related to the present study. They thank the ecological psychology journal club for the fruitful discussion about an earlier version of this paper. They thank Tarkeshwar Singh, Hendrik Reimann, and Jorge Ibáñez-gijón for their helpful comments in response to an earlier version of the manuscript

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Fariba Hasanbarani and Mark L. Latash

. PubMed ID: 11146817 doi:10.1007/s002210000540 10.1007/s002210000540 Schöner , G. ( 1995 ). Recent developments and problems in human movement science and their conceptual implications . Ecological Psychology, 7 ( 4 ), 291 – 314 . doi:10.1207/s15326969eco0704_5 10.1207/s15326969eco0704_5 Singh , T

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Steven van Andel, Michael H. Cole and Gert-Jan Pepping

regulation of step lengths when approaching an obstacle . Ecological Psychology, 21 ( 4 ), 334 – 367 . doi:10.1080/10407410903320991 10.1080/10407410903320991 De Rugy , A. , Montagne , G. , Buekers , M.J. , & Laurent , M. ( 2000 ). The study of locomotor pointing in virtual reality: the