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jay johnson and Adam Ehsan Ali

promotion of the NHL’s green leadership image and its actual environmental initiatives and impact? If so, to what extent and why is this meaningful for future sustainability efforts within the sport industry? We explore these questions in the following manner. First, we outline the theory of ecological

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Rob Millington, Simon C. Darnell and Brad Millington

need conventional energy—we need to make it clean, not impose an end to is use” ( New Indian Express, 2015 ). These remarks are significant in that they called upon the increasingly common sense notion of ecological modernization, whereby capitalist growth and technological advancement are mobilized in

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Rajni Rai, Michelle I. Jongenelis, Ben Jackson, Robert U. Newton and Simone Pettigrew

levels, including individual, social, and environmental domains. An ecological approach that involves consideration of multiple levels of influence has been proposed as being useful for examining determinants of physical activity in both the population in general and older people in particular ( Sallis

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Jolanthe L. de Koning, Afroditi Stathi and Kenneth R. Fox

The frequency of trips outdoors is a strong indicator of older adults’ physical activity levels. This qualitative study compared and contrasted determinants of trips outdoors between rural- (n = 13) and urban-living (n = 15) people aged 65 and older living in England. Interview transcripts were analyzed through directed and summative content analysis employing the Ecological Model framework. Some personal-level determinants (age-related barriers) and environment-level factors (car dependence, bus services) were shared across samples. The main differences were seen in how a community-based social network instigated trips outdoors for rural participants while family ties mostly led to trips outdoors for urban-living participants. Urban participants used and valued recreational facilities, but rural participants did not report them as important in determining trips outdoors. Strategies to improve public transport and minimize age-related barriers may translate from urban to rural contexts. However, social and/or physical environment interventions could be more effective if they were rural-grounded, not urban-translated.

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Katie Weatherson, Lira Yun, Kelly Wunderlich, Eli Puterman and Guy Faulkner

. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) involves repeated measurement of participant behaviors, contexts, beliefs, attitudes, emotional states, perceptions, and experiences in real time, naturalistic settings, 10 often through the use of mobile technology (eg, smartphones). The use of EMA in health behavior

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Munira Abdulwasi, Meena Bhardwaj, Yuka Nakamura, Maha Zawi, Jennifer Price, Paula Harvey and Ananya Tina Banerjee

20 guided by an ecological framework 21 was employed to help interpret and explain why South Asian Muslim women successfully attended and participated in this intervention. This theoretical framework was chosen because it takes into account the setting in which physical activity occurs, which is an

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Walter E. Davis and Allen W. Burton

A new approach to task analysis is presented based upon an ecological theory of perception and current motor development and control theories. The ecological task analysis (ETA) approach stands in sharp contrast to more traditional approaches and offers procedures equally applicable to instruction and assessment of movement performance as well as to applied research. The strengths of the ETA approach lie in (a) its grounding in current motor development and control theories, (b) its linking of the task requirements, environmental conditions, and performer characteristics, (c) its application of a functional and dynamic approach to instruction and assessment, and (d) its integration of instruction and assessment procedures. Following a discussion of the traditional approach and ecological theory, four concepts are presented that emanate from Gibson’s theory of affordances. From these concepts ETA procedures are derived. Applied research questions relating to task analysis are also implied from the ecological approach and are presented in the final section.

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Peter A. Hastie

This study provides an ecological analysis of a sport education season. Through the examination of the tasks and accountability operating in this season, it was determined that the high level of enthusiastic student engagement was due to the presence of three vectors, all of which make positive contributions to sustaining the program of action. These vectors include the teacher’s managerial task system, the student social system, and the content-embedded accountability inherent in the curriculum model. Sport education provides a multidimensional program of action, in contrast to more traditional physical education settings, where teachers either push students through the curriculum with strong external accountability as a way of achieving and sustaining order, or retreat to a curricular zone of safety and negotiate minimum student work for cooperation in the managerial system.

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Nicola Furlan, Mark Waldron, Mark Osborne and Adrian J. Gray


To assess the ecological validity of the Rugby Sevens Simulation Protocol (R7SP) and to evaluate its interday reliability.


Ten male participants (20 ± 2 y, 74 ± 11 kg) completed 2 trials of the R7SP, separated by 7 d. The R7SP comprised typical running and collision activities, based on data recorded during international rugby sevens match play. Heart rate (HR) was monitored continuously during the R7SP, and the participants’ movements were recorded through a 20-Hz global positioning system unit. Blood lactate and rating of perceived exertion were collected before and immediately after the 1st and 2nd halves of the R7SP.


The average activity profile was 117 ± 5 m/min, of which 27 ± 2 m/min was covered at high speed, with a calculated energetic demand of 1037 ± 581 J/kg, of which ~40% was expended at a rate above 19 W/kg. Mean HR was 88% ± 4% of maximal HR. Participants spent ~45% ± 27% of time above 90% of maximal HR (t >90%HRmax). There were no significant differences between trials, except for lactate between the halves of the R7SP. The majority of the measured variables demonstrated a between-trials coefficient of variation (CV%) lower than 5%. Blood lactate measurements (14–20% CV) and t >90%HRmax (26% CV) were less reliable variables. In most cases, the calculated moderate worthwhile change was higher than the CV%.


The R7SP replicates the activity profile and HR responses of rugby sevens match play. It is a reliable simulation protocol that can be used in a research environment to detect systematic worthwhile changes in selected performance variables.

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Thomas A. Stoffregen

to use movement to accomplish our goals? Ecological Physics and Physical Referents We perceive and control our activity relative to the world in which we live. From a Darwinian perspective ( Darwin, 1859 ), this focus on physical reality is imperative: Natural selection operates to perpetuate species