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Jennifer A. Scarduzio, Christina S. Walker, Nicky Lewis, and Anthony M. Limperos

. For practitioners, the findings illustrate that journalists need to employ thematic framing—presenting all of the factors that occur surrounding the violence, rather than just describing the incident in an episodic manner. Theoretically, we used the social ecological model (SEM) to qualitatively

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Michael C. Harding, Quinn D. Bott, and Christopher E. Jonas

locations. Therefore, interventions based on traditional health education must be coupled with changes in the built environment to be most efficacious. Our current vehicle-friendly infrastructure needs to be modified to support increased active transportation and living. Ecological Model Interventions The

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Andrea R. Taliaferro and Lindsay Hammond

Individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) tend to have low rates of participation in voluntary or prescribed physical activity. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to identify the barriers, facilitators, and needs influencing physical activity participation of adults with ID within the framework of a social ecological model. A qualitative approach consisted of data collected from surveys and guided focus groups. Participants included adults with ID (n = 6) and their primary caregiver (n = 6). Barriers were categorized under three themes: organizational barriers, individual constraints, and external influences. Examples of subthemes included information dissemination, reliance on others, and caregiver considerations. Facilitators included primary caregivers as champions and camaraderie. Needs centered on family program involvement, improved programmatic structure, and programmatic support. Results indicate the need for community programs to examine barriers and facilitators applicable to their unique setting and population across all levels of a social ecological model.

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Christina C. Loitz and Nancy Spencer-Cavaliere

Background:

Despite the health benefits associated with physical activity participation, activity levels of North American children are declining. In response, practitioners are placing emphasis on active forms of transportation to and from school. The purpose of this study was to explore the barriers and facilitators to active transportation to school (ATS) from the perspectives of practitioners.

Methods:

The perspectives of 19 practitioners (eg, health promoters, traffic engineers, police, etc.) from 3 communities in Alberta, Canada were captured using focus group interviews followed by content analysis.

Results:

Subthemes tied to barriers included logistics, lifestyle, safety, and lack of resources; while facilitators were comprised of collaboration, education, and leadership. The results were interpreted using an ecological model of health behavior.

Conclusion:

The most common ATS barriers: attitudes and safety concerns, lack of resources and time, and the nature of the natural and built environments were associated with the intrapersonal, organizational, and physical environmental factors, respectively. The most significant organizational facilitators concerned collaboration among parents, schools, businesses, community organizations, and government agencies. While the multifaceted nature of barriers and facilitators add complexity to the issue, it also challenges practitioners to think and act creatively in finding solutions.

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Munira Abdulwasi, Meena Bhardwaj, Yuka Nakamura, Maha Zawi, Jennifer Price, Paula Harvey, and Ananya Tina Banerjee

important consideration given the direct and indirect impact one’s environment plays in the ability to engage in physical activity. 21 , 22 Ecological models assess how physical and social contexts influence individual’s engagement in physical activity by supporting, promoting, or deterring this behavior

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Yeshayahu Hutzler

This article proposes a theory- and practice-based model for adapting physical activities. The ecological frame of reference includes Dynamic and Action System Theory, World Health Organization International Classification of Function and Disability, and Adaptation Theory. A systematic model is presented addressing (a) the task objective, (b) task criteria, (c) limitation and enablement criteria, (d) performance errors, and (e) adaptation suggestions. Four individual case examples are described, referring to the conceptual model and depicting its use in various settings of physical activity, including physical education, rehabilitation, competition, and recreation.

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Matthew Chrisman, Faryle Nothwehr, Kathleen Janz, Jingzhen Yang, and Jacob Oleson

Background:

Rural adults participate in lower levels of physical activity (PA) than urban or suburban adults. Due to known effects of the environment on PA participation, this study examined perceived ecological correlates (social, environmental, and policy) of domain- and intensity-specific PA in rural adults.

Methods:

A cross-sectional survey was completed by 143 individuals residing in the rural Midwest. PA was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire; correlates of PA were measured using a modified version of the PA in Communities Questionnaire. Multiple regression analyses were conducted using general linear modeling.

Results:

Predictors of PA included: employers providing time for exercise (P = .0003); available shopping malls (P = .0032); activity-friendly community aspects (P = .0048); favorable policy attitudes (P = .0018): participation in sports (P < .0001); encouragement from friends (P = .0136); awareness (P = .0015) and use (P = .0113) of community resources; and having hills (P = .0371).

Conclusions:

Correlates of PA in various domains and intensities in rural adults are multifactorial and occur at different levels of the environment. Findings from this study can be used to tailor PA interventions in rural adults, with respect to specific domains and intensity in which the PA occurs.

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Sylvia Titze, Billie Giles-Corti, Matthew W. Knuiman, Terri J. Pikora, Anna Timperio, Fiona C. Bull, and Kimberly van Niel

Background:

This study investigated the relationship between individual and neighborhood environmental factors and cycling for transport and for recreation among adults living in Perth, Western Australia.

Methods:

Baseline cross-sectional data from 1813 participants (40.5% male; age range 18 to 78 years) in the RESIDential Environment (RESIDE) project were analyzed. The questionnaire included information on cycling behavior and on cycling-specific individual, social environmental, and neighborhood environmental attributes. Cycling for transport and recreation were dichotomized as whether or not individuals cycled in a usual week.

Results:

Among the individual factors, positive attitudes toward cycling and perceived behavioral control increased the odds of cycling for transport and for recreation. Among the neighborhood environmental attributes, leafy and attractive neighborhoods, access to bicycle/walking paths, the presence of traffic slowing devices and having many 4-way street intersections were positively associated with cycling for transport. Many alternative routes in the local area increased the odds of cycling for recreation.

Conclusions:

Effective strategies for increasing cycling (particularly cycling for transport) may include incorporating supportive environments such as creating leafy and attractive neighborhood surroundings, low traffic speed, and increased street connectivity, in addition to campaigns aimed at strengthening positive attitudes and confidence to cycle.

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Kazuhiro Harada, Koichiro Oka, Ai Shibata, Kaori Ishii, Yoshio Nakamura, Shigeru Inoue, and Teruichi Shimomitsu

The authors examined the relationship between strength-training behavior and perceived environment in older Japanese adults. An Internet-based survey was conducted of 293 adults age 68.2 ± 2.8 yr. The dependent variable was regular strength-training behavior. The IPAQ environment module, access to facilities for strength training, and home equipment for strength training were environmental factors. Logistic-regression analysis was employed. After demographic variables (gender, age, educational background, household income, body-mass index, self-rated health status, smoking habit, and residential area) were adjusted for, home equipment for strength training (OR = 2.14, 95% CI = 1.50–3.06), access to facilities for strength training (OR = 2.53, 95% CI = 1.32–4.85), and observing active people (OR = 2.20, 95% CI = 1.06–4.58) were positively correlated with regular strength-training behavior. In conclusion, environmental factors associated with strength-training behavior were access to facilities for strength training, having home equipment for strength training, and observing active people.

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Mireille Blais

Most of the existing ecological studies have been conducted during class instructional time. The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe (a) how students (N = 102; grade 2–4) engaged in a strategy named Health Passport taking place mainly outside of school time and (b) how four physical education teachers held students accountable for their involvement in physical activity during a long period of time (3–7 months). An inductive approach guided the data analysis, based on observational notes, interviews, and the content of the students’ Health Passport. The results indicated that children displayed five different profiles of involvement in the completion of the tasks related to their passport. Physical education teachers chose to trust students’ self-management capacity instead of using a formal evaluation to hold them accountable. The experiment of the Health Passport showed that physical education teachers can put together and implement accountability strategies to support students’ regular practice of physical activity at home.