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Ingrid H.M. Steenhuis, Steffie B.C. Nooy, Machiel J.G. Moes and Albertine J. Schuit

Background:

Physical activity levels in most affluent countries are low and many people do not meet the current recommendations. Particularly for people with a low income, economic strategies seem promising to stimulate taking part in sports activities. This study investigated the importance of economic restraints for taking part in sports activities as well as perceptions of low-income people toward different pricing interventions.

Methods:

A qualitative study was conducted, using semistructured, individual interviews with 27 low-income men and women. The framework approach was used to analyze the transcripts of the interviews.

Results:

The respondents considered finances to be an important barrier for participating in sports activities, together with some individual barriers. Promising pricing strategies are a discount on the subscription to the fitness or sports club, a 1 month free trial, and free entrance to the swimming pool once a week.

Conclusions:

Pricing strategies may be a promising intervention to increase physical activity levels of low-income people. However, this study indicates that this should be coupled with an intervention directed at individual barriers. Some pricing strategies will be used and appreciated more by low-income people than other pricing strategies. In addition, pricing strategies should be tailored to individual needs and preferences.

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Arthur T. Johnson

Changes in the political and economic environment of sports organizations are taking place, especially at the levels of state and local government. These changes will impact negatively the nature of the sport-community relationship. The manner in which sports administrators respond to these changes may ultimately determine the viability of many sports organizations. This article suggests that sports administrators must be sensitive to these changes and must adjust their views of the sport-community relationship and their negotiating strategies accordingly. This especially will be important for sports administrators representing organizations that do not have major league status and, therefore, lack power at the negotiating table.

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Karin I. Proper, Ester Cerin and Neville Owen

Background:

There is an inverse relationship between individual socio-economic status (SES) and amount of occupational physical activity. The role of the socio-economic environment is, however, less clear. This study examined the independent influences of neighborhood and individual SES on absolute and relative amount of occupational physical activity. It also examined the moderating effects of neighborhood SES on the relationship between individual SES and occupational physical activity.

Methods:

Employees (n = 1236) resident in high or low SES neighborhoods were assessed on socio-demographic factors, including educational attainment and household income, and physical activity.

Results:

Neighborhood SES and individual SES were independently inversely related to absolute and relative amount of occupational physical activity. Significant interactions between neighborhood SES and level of educational attainment in the contribution of total and vigorous occupational physical activity to total physical activity were found.

Conclusions:

Neighborhood SES can function as a moderator in the relationship between individual SES and occupational physical activity.

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Stephen L. Shapiro, Tim DeSchriver and Daniel A. Rascher

Luxury suites have become a key revenue source and an important element of sport facility design for professional sport organizations. There are a variety of factors influencing the pricing of luxury suites; however, the recent recession has impacted the premium seat sales market significantly. The current investigation was the first empirical examination of luxury suite pricing determinants for professional sport facilities. An economic model, utilizing multiple regression analysis, was constructed to examine the relationship between the current price of luxury suites for major North American professional sports facilities and selected demographic, economic, and team/facility/league-specific explanatory variables, in a uncertain economic climate. The final economic models were found to be significant, explaining 57% and 60% of the variability in luxury suite prices, respectively. Significant variables of interest included team performance and league affiliation, which had a positive influence and the number of competing venues, which had a negative influence on luxury suite prices. The current findings further the body of knowledge in the pricing of admissions to sporting events though the development of the first pricing determinants models for luxury suites, which take into consideration the tenuous economic environment.

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Shushu Chen and Laura Misener

during the leveraging process was not recognized explicitly in the model. We argue that the leveraging partnership in this nonhost region has been influenced by the general political and economic environment . As previously discussed , influenced by the change of national and regional political

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Edgar R. Vieira, Ruth Tappen, Sareen S. Gropper, Maria T. Severi, Gabriella Engstrom, Marcio R. de Oliveira, Alexandre C. Barbosa and Rubens A. da Silva

social and economic environments, especially if they are immigrants, resulting in accelerated health decline ( Kim, Carrasco, Muntaner, McKenzie, & Noh, 2013 ; McCaffrey, 2008 ; Osman & Walsemann, 2016 ; Rote & Markides, 2014 ; Zunzunegui, 2003 ). Immigrant older adults do not feel able to develop

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Gohei Kato, Tomoyuki Arai, Yasuhiro Morita and Hiroaki Fujita

. ( 2015 ). Relationship between job opportunities and economic environments measured from data in internet job searching sites . Procedia Computer Science, 60, 1255 – 1262 . doi: 10.1016/j.procs.2015.08.191 Shimada , H. , Ishizaki , T. , Kato , M. , Morimoto , A. , Tamate , A. , Uchiyama

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Gareth J. Jones, Katie Misener, Per G. Svensson, Elizabeth Taylor and Moonsup Hyun

traditions has established the importance of IORs to accessing embedded resource networks ( Marlier et al., 2015 ); building organizational capacity ( Misener & Doherty, 2013 ); and stabilizing resource pools in the face of ever-changing social, political, and economic environments ( Balduck, Lucidarme

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David Ekholm

people from the different urban and socio-economic environments can meet and interact. In addition, with respect to relations between youngsters and coaches, by being visible there as well as in the local schools, influential coaches and role-models from the sport practices could gain recognition and

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Kristen Day

of the built environment to support physical activity, studies that focus only on the social, cultural, or economic environment, were excluded (as in Saelens and Handy). 18 The physical environment was defined broadly to include urban versus rural residence, natural environment features, and also