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David Chenoweth and Joe Leutzinger

Background:

Physical inactivity and excess weight in American adults have reached epidemic levels. This article describes how cost data from previously conducted analyses in several states were used to quantify the costs of physical inactivity and excess weight among American adults.

Methods:

Medical and workers’ compensation cost data on selected medical conditions were obtained from various health plans and state agencies in seven states. Productivity loss norms were obtained from published studies.

Results:

The estimated financial burden which includes direct medical care, workers’ compensation, and productivity loss costs among the seven states is $93.32 billion for physical inactivity and $94.33 billion for excess weight. The estimated nationwide cost of these risk factors is approximately $507 billion with projected costs exceeding $708 billion in 2008. Projected cost-savings of $31 billion per year could be realized with a 5% drop in these risk factors.

Conclusion:

The cost of physical inactivity and excess weight among American adults is significant. More research on best-of-class interventions to curtail the high prevalence of these risk factors is needed.

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Jimmy Sanderson and Katie Brown

harmed the entire sports industry, the impact is particularly acute for youth sports, given the sheer volume of participants and the attending substructure that funds this market. In this commentary, we discussed the psychological, developmental, and economic fallout from an unprecedented stoppage in

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Angie L. Cradock, David Buchner, Hatidza Zaganjor, John V. Thomas, James F. Sallis, Kenneth Rose, Leslie Meehan, Megan Lawson, René Lavinghouze, Mark Fenton, Heather M. Devlin, Susan A. Carlson, Torsha Bhattacharya, and Janet E. Fulton

creating physical activity-friendly and walkable communities and impacts on safety, local economic development, housing, employment, and real estate. These features of a walkable community—safer and pedestrian-friendly streets, mixed land use, and access to transit—can also be tied to economic benefits to

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Nola Agha and Marijke Taks

Positive economic impacts of large scale sport events, as well as the methods for measuring economic impact have come under scrutiny (e.g.,  Késenne, 2012 ). Nevertheless, sport event managers, local organizations, and public authorities still rely on economic impact studies to justify the public

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Marshall H. Medoff

The various biological, psychological, and sociological hypotheses and the economic hypothesis provided possible explanations of why blacks will be underrepresented at central positions in professional sports. The economic hypothesis attributes this phenomena to the inferior socioeconomic status of blacks and differential skill and development costs. Over the time period 1970–1984, when the psychological and sociological factors remained relatively constant but blacks’ socioeconomic status and access to facilities increased, the data showed that in major league baseball the recruitment of blacks in central positions increased and declined at the noncentral outfield position. This finding was consistent with the economic hypothesis but inconsistent with the alternative hypotheses.

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Nicholas M. Watanabe, Grace Yan, Brian P. Soebbing, and Ann Pegoraro

embedded in the organizational environment and behaviors of sport management are critically discussed. Meanwhile, it must be emphasized that the nature of sport business contains various economic activities. Practices such as determining wages, marketing campaigns, purchasing goods, and hiring employees

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Kristin M. Mills, Scott Sadler, Karen Peterson, and Lorrin Pang

falls data beyond 6 months, so efficacy beyond this duration was not measured. Goals of This Economic Evaluation The MWB program was compared with status-quo fall prevention activities in a residential elderly care home setting previously described, 6 which currently implements other BL approaches to

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Allen L. Sack and Arthur T. Johnson

As cities turn to sport as a vehicle for encouraging economic development, sport managers increasingly find themselves in the midst of debates over urban policy. The purpose of this study was to examine the decision-making process that brought the Volvo International Tennis Tournament to New Haven, Connecticut. Because New Haven has been the center of classic debates over community power, the Volvo tennis case offers an excellent opportunity to examine the use of the theories of urban politics in understanding how development decisions are made. The Volvo case suggests that a synthesis of Stone's regime theory and Peterson's economistic paradigm provides a useful model for identifying the key players in economic development.

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Jeffrey A. Graham, Robin L. Hardin, and James Bemiller

The News-Sentinel Open presented by Pilot is an event on the Web.com Tour. The Web.com Tour began in 1990 with the name of the Ben Hogan Tour and has transitioned through several title sponsors, taking its current name in June 2012. The tour is the developmental tour for the PGA Tour and the primary means for professional golfers to earn playing privileges on the PGA Tour. Tournaments are 72-hole stroke play events featuring between 144 and 156 golfers. This specific tournament is staged in Knoxville, Tennessee, and is one of only three original tour stops from the inaugural season in 1990. In an effort to measure economic impact in the greater Knoxville area resulting from the tournament weekend, the News-Sentinel Open has commissioned an economic impact study. This case study challenges students to analyze data collected from the economic impact study commissioned by the tour organizers. By engaging with this case study, and its accompanying data and results, students will gain insight into best practices of planning, conducting, and analyzing an ethical economic impact study.

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Tom Perks

As is well known among sport sociologists, opportunities for sport participation are not equal across different socio-economic status (SES) groups, with research showing that adults with high SES participate in sport more than those with low SES ( Canadian Fitness & Lifestyle Research Institute