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Reliability of Change-of-Direction Economy in Soccer Players

Filippo Dolci, Andrew E. Kilding, Tania Spiteri, Paola Chivers, Ben Piggott, Andrew Maiorana, and Nicolas H. Hart

Movement economy represents the energetic (or aerobic) efficiency of performing a given task at submaximal intensities, and it is a crucial determinant of endurance performance. 1 To date, movement economy has been mostly assessed during tasks such as in-line running and, for this reason, is

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Running Economy: Neuromuscular and Joint-Stiffness Contributions in Trained Runners

Nicholas Tam, Ross Tucker, Jordan Santos-Concejero, Danielle Prins, and Robert P. Lamberts

Running economy, defined as the oxygen or energy cost of transport, has been found to be an important and reliable predictor of running performance. 1 The value of running economy as a performance predictor arises because both metabolic and biomechanical aspects contribute to it, and by extension

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Strength Training Improves Exercise Economy in Triathletes During a Simulated Triathlon

Kate M. Luckin-Baldwin, Claire E. Badenhorst, Ashley J. Cripps, Grant J. Landers, Robert J. Merrells, Max K. Bulsara, and Gerard F. Hoyne

Triathlon success is predominantly determined by the athletes’ maximum sustained power or pace during competition and the energy cost associated with maintaining this movement. 1 The energy cost associated with this sustained power or pace is known as the athletes’ economy, defined as the

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The Political Economy of Mass Sport Participation Legacies From Large-Scale Sport Events: A Conceptual Paper

Alana Thomson, Kristine Toohey, and Simon Darcy

apply Whaites’ ( 2017 ) political economy framework, which includes aspects of network structures, stakeholders, and processes, to explore the inherent distinctions between the political economies of sport and sport events. Political economy is a paradigm through which resource production and

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With Name, Image, and Likeness, College Sports Enters the Gig Economy

Sam C. Ehrlich, Joe Sabin, and Neal C. Ternes

driving platforms Uber and Lyft—have vastly increased access to independent contracting jobs. This proliferation has led to a sharp increase in alternative work relationships and the rise of the so-called “gig economy” ( McCue, 2018 ; McFeely & Pendell, 2018 ). The proliferation of the gig economy within

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Effects of Highly Cushioned and Resilient Racing Shoes on Running Economy at Slower Running Speeds

Dustin P. Joubert, Trace A. Dominy, and Geoffrey T. Burns

Running economy (RE) can be defined as the rate of oxygen consumption ( V ˙ O 2 ) or energy utilization required to run at a given speed. It is a key determinant of distance running performance as improved RE allows an athlete to run faster at the same physiological intensity. 1 Advancements in

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Historical Improvement in Speed Skating Economy

Dionne A. Noordhof, Elmy van Tok, Florentine S.J.G.M. Joosten, Florentina J. Hettinga, Marco J.M. Hoozemans, Carl Foster, and Jos J. de Koning

Half the improvement in 1500-m speed-skating world records can be explained by technological innovations and the other half by athletic improvement. It is hypothesized that improved skating economy is accountable for much of the athletic improvement. Purpose: To determine skating economy in contemporary athletes and to evaluate the change in economy over the years. Methods: Contemporary skaters of the Dutch national junior team (n = 8) skated 3 bouts of 6 laps at submaximal velocity, from which skating economy was calculated (in mL O2 ・ kg–1 ・ km–1). A literature search provided historic data on skating velocity and submaximal V̇O2 (in mL ・ kg–1 ・ min–1), from which skating economy was determined. The association between year and skating economy was determined using linear-regression analysis. Correcting the change in economy for technological innovations resulted in an estimate of the association between year and economy due to athletic improvement. Results: A mean (± SD) skating economy of 73.4 ± 6.4 mL O2 ・ kg–1 ・ km–1 was found in contemporary athletes. Skating economy improved significantly over the historical time frame (–0.57 mL O2 ・ kg–1 ・ km–1 ・ y–1, 95% confidence interval [–0.84, –0.31]). In the final regression model for the klapskate era, with altitude as confounder, skating economy improved with a nonsignificant –0.58 mL O2 ・ kg–1 ・ km–1 ・ y–1 ([–1.19, 0.035]). Conclusions: Skating economy was 73.4 ± 6.4 mL O2 ・ kg–1 ・ km–1 in contemporary athletes and improved over the past ~50 y. The association between year and skating economy due to athletic improvement, for the klapskate era, approached significance, suggesting a possible improvement in economy over these years.

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Muscle Activation Patterns Correlate With Race Walking Economy in Elite Race Walkers: A Waveform Analysis

Josu Gomez-Ezeiza, Jordan Santos-Concejero, Jon Torres-Unda, Brian Hanley, and Nicholas Tam

better running economy. 17 , 18 This implicates the lower limb musculature in ground reaction force attenuation during braking at initial ground contact; this is achieved through optimizing joint stiffness for a more efficient transfer of energy. 19 Whether this neural preparation is also important in

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Modulators of Change-of-Direction Economy After Repeated Sprints in Elite Soccer Players

Filippo Dolci, Andrew E. Kilding, Tania Spiteri, Paola Chivers, Ben Piggott, Andrew Maiorana, and Nicolas H. Hart

specific strength and conditioning programs aimed at preventing reductions in match outputs. One key physiological determinant of running performance is movement economy, 6 which represents the energetic cost (E C ) of movement at submaximal intensities, and is the resultant interaction of an athlete

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The Effects of an Associative, Dissociative, Internal, and External Focus of Attention on Running Economy

Mahin Aghdaei, Alireza Farsi, Maryam Khalaji, and Jared Porter

on objects in the environment ( Samson et al., 2017 ). Studies have revealed that directing attention externally toward the environment, or simply away from the performance of the task, has a positive effect on endurance performance and economy ( Schücker et al., 2013 , 2015 ). Running economy has