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Fernando Santos, Daniel Gould and Leisha Strachan

effectively (e.g.,  Santos, Camiré, & Campos, 2016 ). Coach education programs (i.e., including formal and informal coach education opportunities) should provide guidance for youth sport coaches and help them overcome challenges that prevent or interfere with coaching for PYD outcomes ( Newman, Ortega, Lower

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Charles H. Tator

There has been a remarkable increase in the past 10 years in the awareness of concussion in the sports and recreation communities. Just as sport participants, their families, coaches, trainers, and sports organizations now know more about concussions, health care professionals are also better prepared to diagnose and manage concussions. As has been stated in the formal articles in this special issue on sport-related concussion, education about concussion is one of the most important aspects of concussion prevention, with the others being data collection, program evaluation, improved engineering, and introduction and enforcement of rules. Unfortunately, the incidence of concussion appears to be rising in many sports and thus, additional sports-specific strategies are required to reduce the incidence, short-term effects, and long term consequences of concussion. Enhanced educational strategies are required to ensure that individual participants, sports organizations, and health care professionals recognize concussions and manage them proficiently according to internationally recognized guidelines. Therefore, this paper serves as a “brief report” on a few important aspects of concussion education and prevention.

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Louisa A. Webb and Doune Macdonald

In a research project investigating the underrepresentation of women in leadership in physical education within the context of workplace cultures and teachers’ lives and careers, subtle effects of power were found to be influential. This article outlines the analytical framework that was used for the discourse analysis of interviews from this research based on the work of Gore (1998), Wright (2000), and Foucault. Seventeen teachers (7 male and 10 female) were interviewed and the data analyzed through discourse analysis using eight techniques of power described by Gore that are pertinent to educational and physical education settings. These techniques explained the colonization of space by dominant masculinities, the male gaze on female bodies, gendered expectations of behavior and appearance, dominant discourses of male leadership, and exclusion from male-dominated networks that all contributed toward the underrepresentation of women in leadership in physical education.

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Tracie A. Barnett, Lise Gauvin, Cora L. Craig and Peter T. Katzmarzyk

Background:

We investigated the population trajectory of leisure time physical activity (LTPA) in adults age 18 to 60 y (n = 881), who were recruited in 1981 for the Canada Fitness Survey and followed-up through the Campbell’s Survey on Well-Being (1988) and the Physical Activity Longitudinal Study (2002/04).

Methods:

Data on involvement in LTPA were collected by questionnaire and used to estimate average daily energy expenditure (EE) (kcal · kg-1 · d-1) during leisure time. Growth trajectory modeling was used to describe the overall population trajectory of LTPA and the extent to which average trajectories varied between sub-groups defined by age, sex, and education.

Results:

The population trajectory of LTPA over time was modified by baseline age, but not by sex or by level of education. Disparities in LTPA related to sex and education persisted over two decades.

Conclusion:

This longitudinal investigation improves our understanding of the processes underlying patterns of LTPA in adults.

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Emma Renehan, Claudia Meyer, Rohan A. Elliott, Frances Batchelor, Catherine Said, Terry Haines and Dianne Goeman

-inducing drugs (FRIDs; Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Healthcare, 2009 ) that may impair balance and coordination and/or promote sedation ( Milos et al., 2014 ). Education is a further important component of multifactorial programs addressing low levels of falls and falls prevention knowledge

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Brittany M. Ingram, Melissa C. Kay, Christina B. Vander Vegt and Johna K. Register-Mihalik

body checking policy change. In addition, further data are needed to differentiate between increased concussion incidence resulting from concussion education efforts that may improve disclosure and increased concussion incidence as a direct result of policy changes. Strength of Recommendation Grade B

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Alba Reguant-Closa, Margaret M. Harris, Tim G. Lohman and Nanna L. Meyer

Athlete’s Plate nutrition education tool The AP was launched during the 2012 London Olympics and has been in use since then by the USOC sport dietitians and internationally, as it is available for free download at www.uccs.edu/swell/athletes-plate . To date, the AP has not been validated. Validation is

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Laura Kestilä, Tomi Mäki-Opas, Anton E Kunst, Katja Borodulin, Ossi Rahkonen and Ritva Prättälä

Background:

Limited knowledge exists on how childhood social, health-related and economic circumstances predict adult physical inactivity. Our aim was a) to examine how various childhood adversities and living conditions predict leisure-time physical inactivity in early adulthood and b) to find out whether these associations are mediated through the respondent’s own education.

Methods:

Young adults aged 18−29 were used from the Health 2000 Study of the Finnish. The cross-sectional data were based on interviews and questionnaires including retrospective information on childhood circumstances. The analyses were carried out on 68% of the original sample (N = 1894). The outcome measure was leisure-time physical inactivity.

Results:

Only a few of the 11 childhood adversities were related with physical activity in early adulthood. Having been bullied at school was associated with physical inactivity independently of the other childhood circumstances and the respondent’s own education. Low parental education predicted leisure-time physical inactivity in men and the association was mediated by the respondent´s own education. Respondents with only primary or vocational education were more likely to be physically inactive during leisure-time compared with those with secondary or higher education.

Conclusions:

There is some evidence that few specific childhood adversities, especially bullying at school, have long-lasting effects on physical activity levels.

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Lori A. Gano-Overway and Kristen Dieffenbach

bachelor’s degree. This assertion is supported in a review of research by Trudel and Gilbert ( 2006 ) who found that over 90% of developmental (e.g., interscholastic coaches) and elite coaches had a college degree with the most common degree being in physical education or sport studies associated with

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Jayne M. Jenkins and Mary Lou Veal

Peer coaching has recently been incorporated into teacher training programs in order to help novice teachers learn theory and incorporate teaching skills, models, and methods into the classroom. Although recent research on peer coaching has identified an increase in the reflective practice of preservice teachers (PTs), few researchers have examined how teacher knowledge develops in the coaching experience. The purpose of this study was to describe the kinds of knowledge exhibited by 8 PTs during coaching activities, and how the roles of teacher and coach contributed to knowledge development during an elementary physical education field-based methods course. Data collection included observations, postlesson conferences, and daily written reports. Results revealed that pedagogical content knowing (PCKg) developed differently in the roles of teacher and coach. Growth in the teaching role resulted initially from interaction of two knowledge components (i.e., students and pedagogy), and later from interaction of three or more components (subject matter, environmental context, and general pedagogical knowledge).