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Liam A. Slack, Ian W. Maynard, Joanne Butt, and Peter Olusoga

The present study evaluated the effectiveness of a Mental Toughness Education and Training Program (MTETP) in elite football officiating. The MTETP consisted of four individual and two group-based workshops designed to develop mental toughness (MT) and enhance performance in three English Football League (EFL) referees. Adopting a single-subject, multiple-baseline-across-participants design, MT and referee-assessor reports were evaluated. Self and coach-ratings of MT highlighted an instant and continued improvement in all three referees during the intervention phases. Performance reports of all referees improved throughout the intervention phases compared with the baseline phase. Social validation data indicated that an array of strategies within the MTETP facilitated MT development. Discussions acknowledge theoretical and practical implications relating to the continued progression of MT interventions in elite sport.

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Janaina Lima Fogaca, Sam J. Zizzi, and Mark B. Andersen

issues in training and supervision . Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 12 , 134 – 150 . doi:10.1080/10413200008404219 10.1080/10413200008404219 Andersen , M.B. , & Williams-Rice , B.T. ( 1996 ). Supervision in the education and training of sport psychology service providers . The Sport

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Judy L. Van Raalte, Allen E. Cornelius, Staci Andrews, Nancy S. Diehl, and Britton W. Brewer

Physically and mentally healthy student-athletes are in a good position to thrive academically, socially, and athletically. Unfortunately, many student-athletes fail to get the mental health help they need due to factors such as lack of knowledge and mental health stigma. The purpose of this research was to create and evaluate a multimedia, interactive website (www.SupportForSport.org) to enable student-athletes to gain the necessary knowledge and confidence to make effective mental health referrals. Study 1 was conducted to determine if the website functioned as intended. In Study 2, 27 intercollegiate athletic directors and coaches evaluated the website. Their favorable evaluations led to Study 3, a controlled field trial with a national sample of 153 student-athletes. Results indicated that viewing the www.SupportForSport.org site resulted in enhanced mental health referral knowledge and efficacy relative to a control group. These results suggest that tailored online programming can affect outcomes for student-athletes across geographic regions and resource availability levels.

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Mark B. Andersen and Brian T. Williams-Rice

Supervision plays a central role in the training of sport psychologists, but little discussion of what constitutes adequate supervision of trainees and practitioners is available in the applied sport psychology literature. Broader issues of supervision, such as the training of students to become supervisors, metasupervision, and career-long collegial supervision are rarely discussed. This paper will present models of general supervision processes from training the neophyte to collegial supervision, derived primarily from clinical and counseling psychology. Included are supervising the delivery of performance-enhancement services, identifying trainee and client needs, helping the student understand transference and countertransference phenomena, and suggestions for examining the relationship between the supervisor and the supervisee. Suggestions for improving supervision include course work and/or practica in supervision processes for applied sport psychology graduate programs along with continuing education workshops at sport psychology conferences.

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Nicole Johnson, Katie Hanna, Julie Novak, and Angelo P. Giardino

organizations to effectively manage these cases in-house due to a lack of education and training in the area of child welfare ( Parent, 2011 ; Rhind, McDermott, & Koleva, 2014 ). Independent organizations can provide a level of education and training in athlete protection historically omitted from national

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Pamela Wicker, Katie E. Misener, Lisa A. Kihl, and Graham Cuskelly

used in practice to design and develop antifraud education and training resources for CSOs. For example, sport governing bodies can draw on the procedural and financial items of the vulnerability to fraud scale and the identified protection and risk factors when designing such antifraud programs

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Bradley Fawver, Garrett F. Beatty, John T. Roman, and Kevin Kurtz

, without proper education and training, there is significant risk for injury and burnout ( Normand, Wolfe, & Peak, 2017 ; Smith, 2015 ). The available data on employed youth sport coaches fail to fully capture the youth sport coaching landscape when considering the number of youth club sport leagues (e

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David J. Lutz

The education and training process of sport psychologists has been, for the most part, an unplanned process. The divisions within the field are explored along with the attempts by national bodies to systematize the standards and qualifications necessary for sport psychologists. Educational opportunities tend to be hybrid versions of programs in physical education combined with counseling or clinical psychology. Within these programs, it is not unusual to find few faculty who emphasize sport psychology as a primary area. Potential training models are explored and suggestions are made for programs seeking to develop a sport psychology component.

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Terry Marsh, Kathryn Pitkin Derose, and Deborah A. Cohen

Background:

Parks provide numerous opportunities for physical activity (PA). Previous studies have evaluated parks’ physical features, but few have assessed how park staff influence PA.

Methods:

We conducted semistructured interviews with 49 park directors, focusing on perceptions of their role, park programs, marketing and outreach, external collaborations, and PA promotion. Directors also completed a questionnaire providing demographics, education and training, and other personal characteristics.

Results:

Park directors’ descriptions of their roles varied widely, from primarily administrative to emphasizing community interaction, though most (70% to 80%) reported offering programs and community interaction as primary. Including PA in current programs and adding PA-specific programs were the most commonly reported ways of increasing PA. Also noted were facility and staffing improvements, and conducting citywide marketing. Many directors felt inadequately trained in marketing. Most parks reported community collaborations, but they appeared fairly superficial. An increasing administrative burden and bureaucracy were recurring themes throughout the interviews.

Conclusions:

Staff training in marketing and operation of PA programs is needed. Partnerships with health departments and organizations can help facilitate the PA promotion potential of parks. As there are competing views of how parks should be managed, standardized benchmarks to evaluate efficiency may help to optimize usage and PA promotion.

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Paul J. Makhoul, Kathryn E. Sinden, Renée S. MacPhee, and Steven L. Fischer

Paramedics represent a unique occupational group where the nature of their work, providing prehospital emergency care, makes workplace modifications to manage and control injury risks difficult. Therefore, the provision of workplace education and training to support safe lifting remains a viable and important approach. There is, however, a lack of evidence describing movement strategies that may be optimal for paramedic work. The purpose of this study was to determine if a strategy leveraging a greater contribution of work from the lower body relative to the torso was associated with lower biomechanical exposures on the spine. Twenty-five active duty paramedics performed 3 simulated lifting activities common to paramedic work. Ground reaction forces and whole body kinematics were recorded to calculate: peak spine moment and angle about the L4/L5 flexion-extension axis as indicators of biomechanical exposure; and, joint work, integrated from net joint power as a measure of technique inclusive of movement dynamics. Paramedics generating more work from the lower body, relative to the trunk, were more likely to experience lower peak L4/L5 spine moments and angles. These data can inform the development of workplace training and education on safe lifting that focuses on paramedics generating more work from the lower body.