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An Evaluation of a Mental Toughness Education and Training Program for Early-Career English Football League Referees

Liam A. Slack, Ian W. Maynard, Joanne Butt, and Peter Olusoga

The present study evaluated the effectiveness of a Mental Toughness Education and Training Program (MTETP) in elite football officiating. The MTETP consisted of four individual and two group-based workshops designed to develop mental toughness (MT) and enhance performance in three English Football League (EFL) referees. Adopting a single-subject, multiple-baseline-across-participants design, MT and referee-assessor reports were evaluated. Self and coach-ratings of MT highlighted an instant and continued improvement in all three referees during the intervention phases. Performance reports of all referees improved throughout the intervention phases compared with the baseline phase. Social validation data indicated that an array of strategies within the MTETP facilitated MT development. Discussions acknowledge theoretical and practical implications relating to the continued progression of MT interventions in elite sport.

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Walking Multiple Paths of Supervision in American Sport Psychology: A Qualitative Tale of Novice Supervisees’ Development

Janaina Lima Fogaca, Sam J. Zizzi, and Mark B. Andersen

issues in training and supervision . Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 12 , 134 – 150 . doi:10.1080/10413200008404219 10.1080/10413200008404219 Andersen , M.B. , & Williams-Rice , B.T. ( 1996 ). Supervision in the education and training of sport psychology service providers . The Sport

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Supervision in the Education and Training of Sport Psychology Service Providers

Mark B. Andersen and Brian T. Williams-Rice

Supervision plays a central role in the training of sport psychologists, but little discussion of what constitutes adequate supervision of trainees and practitioners is available in the applied sport psychology literature. Broader issues of supervision, such as the training of students to become supervisors, metasupervision, and career-long collegial supervision are rarely discussed. This paper will present models of general supervision processes from training the neophyte to collegial supervision, derived primarily from clinical and counseling psychology. Included are supervising the delivery of performance-enhancement services, identifying trainee and client needs, helping the student understand transference and countertransference phenomena, and suggestions for examining the relationship between the supervisor and the supervisee. Suggestions for improving supervision include course work and/or practica in supervision processes for applied sport psychology graduate programs along with continuing education workshops at sport psychology conferences.

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Mental Health Referral for Student-Athletes: Web-Based Education and Training

Judy L. Van Raalte, Allen E. Cornelius, Staci Andrews, Nancy S. Diehl, and Britton W. Brewer

Physically and mentally healthy student-athletes are in a good position to thrive academically, socially, and athletically. Unfortunately, many student-athletes fail to get the mental health help they need due to factors such as lack of knowledge and mental health stigma. The purpose of this research was to create and evaluate a multimedia, interactive website ( to enable student-athletes to gain the necessary knowledge and confidence to make effective mental health referrals. Study 1 was conducted to determine if the website functioned as intended. In Study 2, 27 intercollegiate athletic directors and coaches evaluated the website. Their favorable evaluations led to Study 3, a controlled field trial with a national sample of 153 student-athletes. Results indicated that viewing the site resulted in enhanced mental health referral knowledge and efficacy relative to a control group. These results suggest that tailored online programming can affect outcomes for student-athletes across geographic regions and resource availability levels.

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“It’s Absolutely Essential”: Sport and Performance Psychology Practitioners’ Perspectives on Training, Use, and Importance of Debriefing in Applied Work

Stefanee Maurice, Megan Byrd, Holt Crawford, Kaytlyn Johnson, Joy He, and Carolena Charalambous

practitioners’ education and training on debriefing, their use and perceived importance of debriefing in their applied work, and how they evaluate the success of their debriefs. Data were collected in two phases: In Phase I, researchers used a questionnaire to collect quantitative data; in Phase II, researchers

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Advocating for Implementation of the Global Action Plan on Physical Activity: Challenges and Support Requirements

Joey Murphy, Karen Milton, Matthew Mclaughlin, Trevor Shilton, Gabriella M. McLoughlin, Lindsey J. Reece, Jacqueline L. Mair, Artur Direito, Katharina E. Kariippanon, Kelly J. Mackenzie, Myrto F. Mavilidi, Erin M. Shellington, Masamitsu Kamada, Leonie Heron, Edtna Jauregui, Chalchisa Abdeta, Ilaria Pina, Ryan Pinto, and Rachel Sutherland

advocate • • Awareness Awareness of the GAPPA in the wider agencies and communities • • • • Personal awareness of how to promote PA • • • • Advocacy education and training Advocacy skills and training • • • Local application Translating the GAPPA to local contexts • • Accessibility Accessibility of

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U.S. Center for SafeSport: Preventing Abuse in Sports

Nicole Johnson, Katie Hanna, Julie Novak, and Angelo P. Giardino

organizations to effectively manage these cases in-house due to a lack of education and training in the area of child welfare ( Parent, 2011 ; Rhind, McDermott, & Koleva, 2014 ). Independent organizations can provide a level of education and training in athlete protection historically omitted from national

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Vulnerability to Fraud in Community Sport Organizations: A Multicountry Study on the Role of Organizational Capacity

Pamela Wicker, Katie E. Misener, Lisa A. Kihl, and Graham Cuskelly

used in practice to design and develop antifraud education and training resources for CSOs. For example, sport governing bodies can draw on the procedural and financial items of the vulnerability to fraud scale and the identified protection and risk factors when designing such antifraud programs

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The Duality of Sport Social Workers Coaching Critical Positive Youth Development Within Competitive Youth Sport

Cecelia Tarr, Tarkington J. Newman, Fernando Santos, and Stéphanie Turgeon

include service, social justice, dignity and worth of the person, importance of human relationships, integrity, and competence. Therefore, sport social workers, because of their education and training which is fundamentally grounded in advancing social justice and challenging social injustices, may be

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The Status of Youth Coach Training in the United States: Existing Programs and Room for Improvement

Bradley Fawver, Garrett F. Beatty, John T. Roman, and Kevin Kurtz

, without proper education and training, there is significant risk for injury and burnout ( Normand, Wolfe, & Peak, 2017 ; Smith, 2015 ). The available data on employed youth sport coaches fail to fully capture the youth sport coaching landscape when considering the number of youth club sport leagues (e