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Karl M. Newell

In this paper I discuss briefly some traditional and contemporary issues that challenge the academic structure of the field of Kinesiology. These include the long-standing polemics of the profession-discipline debate and the fragmentation of the academic content knowledge, together with the more recent challenges of education or health as the umbrella construct and the relation of kinesiology to physical and occupational therapy. It appears that the essence of our persistent problems remains, but it is augmented with related and more contemporary issues. Thus, these continue to be challenging times in kinesiology, as they are for higher education in general, reinforcing the long-held notion that change is the one constant.

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Cheryl M. Glazebrook

are fundamental research; integration across the subdisciplines of motor development, motor control and learning, and sport and exercise psychology; and with the wider scientific community and applied fields. An integrated approach will have meaningful and tangible influences on education, health care

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Laura Capranica, Maria Francesca Piacentini, Shona Halson, Kathryn H. Myburgh, Etsuko Ogasawara and Mindy Millard-Stafford

Sport is recognized as playing a relevant societal role to promote education, health, intercultural dialogue, and the individual development, regardless of an individual’s gender, race, age, ability, religion, political affiliation, sexual orientation, and socioeconomic background. Yet, it was not until the 2012 Summer Olympic Games in London that every country’s delegation included a female competitor. The gender gap in sport, although closing, remains, due to biological differences affecting performance, but it is also influenced by reduced opportunity and sociopolitical factors that influence full female participation across a range of sports around the world. Until the cultural environment is equitable, scientific discussion related to physiological differences using methods that examine progression in male and female world-record performances is limited. This commentary is intended to provide a forum to discuss issues underlying gender differences in sport performance from a global perspective and acknowledge the influence of cultural and sociopolitical factors that continue to ultimately affect female performance.

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Vanessa J. Harbour, Timothy K. Behrens, Han S. Kim and Connie L. Kitchens

Background:

The purpose of this study was to examine whether college students meeting the vigorous physical activity (VPA) recommendation reported less frequent symptoms of depression than those not meeting the recommendation.

Methods:

A secondary analysis of the Utah Higher Education Health Behavior Survey was conducted. Descriptive statistics and unconditional logistic regressions were calculated.

Results:

The final sample included 8621 participants (age = 21.34 ± 2.6 years). There was a difference in the frequency of depressive symptoms and VPA. Those not meeting the VPA recommendation reported having more frequent depressive symptoms than those meeting the VPA recommendation. Results were consistent by gender.

Conclusion:

In this sample, our data suggest VPA may be associated with a reduction in depressive symptoms. These findings might be indicative of a dose–response relationship between VPA and symptoms of depression in college students.

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Jennifer Bruening, Rhema D. Fuller, Raymond J. Cotrufo, Rachel M. Madsen, Justin Evanovich and Devon E. Wilson-Hill

Allport’s (1954) intergroup contact hypothesis states that interactions with members of an out-group, particularly of a different racial and/or ethnic group, are effective in changing attitudes about diversity (Allport, 1954; Pettigrew, 1998). In this study, the intergroup contact hypothesis was applied to the design of a sport management course. The classroom component focused the role of sport in education, health, and leadership development, and the application was structured sport and physical activity programming with school-age children at several urban sites. Data were gathered from 91 college students over 3 years about course-related experiences and how the students’ backgrounds influenced their social identities and understanding of out-group members. Results showed that intergroup contact effectively assisted in developing understanding and cooperation and reducing negative attitudes between groups. The participants received diversity education, via intergroup contact, both inside and outside the classroom, which will potentially equip them to take proactive strategies when managing organizational diversity in the sport industry.

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John R. Todorovich, Daniel K. Drost, F. Stephen Bridges and Christopher K. Wirth

Disciplinary isolation has facilitated health education, public health, and physical education professionals to sometimes pursue common goals without the benefit of interdisciplinary collaboration and perspectives. Recognizing the potential benefits of interdisciplinary collaboration efforts to solve complex problems, faculty members at the University of West Florida developed an innovative doctoral program combining the disciplines of physical education, health education, and health promotion. Beginning with the salient common ground of issues related to engagement in physical activity, the program is designed to explore, compare, and contrast best practices in research and practice from each discipline. Benefits include synergistic solutions to common problems, graduates who transcend traditional professional silos to be more impactful, and the creation of innovative research endeavors. Graduates also find that they meet contemporary workforce needs outside of academia and are more marketable as faculty in kinesiology and health-related departments because of their rich, multidisciplinary knowledge base. Challenges to program implementation include prior student socialization from traditional studies in their disciplines and faculty working to move beyond their professional comfort zones to collaboratively mentor students in the program.

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Paul C. Paese

The initial purpose of this study was to assess the differences between five physical education majors and five elementary education majors at the entry level of a teacher education program. Elementary education majors pursue a certification in elementary education (classroom), but must also work on a certification in one other elementary specialization (i.e., physical education, health, reading). An experimental teaching unit (ETU) with pre- and posttests was used to determine student achievement and differences between the two entry level groups in various criterion process variables. Both entry level groups of student interns were also compared to five student teachers in physical education, who were from the same teacher preparation program and had completed the same ETU the previous year. Results indicated that the two entry level groups were fairly equal in overall teaching effectiveness. When the two entry level groups of interns were compared to the student teacher group, it was concluded that the entry level groups were more effective teachers. This conclusion was generated after data analysis indicated a significant difference (P < .05) between groups on student skill gain (pre- to posttest in ETU), management time, activity time, and engaged motor. A restructuring of this teacher preparation program is recommended.

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Anita Wyznikiewicz-Nawracala

The reasons for reported low sport activity of Polish women usually have been explained by too many responsibilities at work outside the home and at home. Yet, with the introduction of aerobics into Poland women apparently have had to overcome these hindrances. Other factors are assumed to be decisive reasons for physically active women in their mature years rather than the reasons which, up to now, were accepted as facts.

The purpose of this study was to identify the factors differentiating women who are active in sport and women who are not interested in sport but take care of their body spending holidays at spas.

The investigation was based on an interview, including a questionnaire to evaluate opinions on health and feelings. The questionnaire consisted of the following areas: personal data, occupation, level of education, health problems and sport activities practiced in youth.

There are many factors related to why women are physically active, but the main influence comes from how active they were in their younger years. The financial status and lack of time only make a difference with respect to what kind of sport is practiced; it does not affect whether or not a sport is practiced.

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Zachary Wahl-Alexander and Matthew D. Curtner-Smith

Experiences, Student Teaching None None None None Instructional models with which familiar Multi-Activity, Sport Education, Health-Related Fitness, Teaching Games for Understanding Multi-Activity, Sport Education, Health-Related Fitness, Teaching Games for Understanding Multi-Activity, Sport Education, Health

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Susana Andrade, Angélica Ochoa-Avilés, Wilma Freire, Natalia Romero-Sandoval, Daniel Orellana, Teodoro Contreras, José Luis Pillco, Jessica Sacta, Diana Andrade Muñoz, Patricia Ramírez, Miguel Martin and Silvana Donoso

”, “active play”, “leisure time”, “sport”, “sedentary behaviors”, “family”, “community”, “environment”, and “policies”. Additionally, governmental web pages (Education, Health, Sport and Economic & social inclusion Ministries, SENPLADES, INEC) were reviewed to identify policies reports, databases, strategies