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Wesley J. Wilson, Luke E. Kelly and Justin A. Haegele

Purpose: To examine how physical educators and adapted physical educators make decisions regarding the implementation of the least restrictive environment law and what factors influence those practices. Methods: This study utilized a descriptive survey design through an online platform. Participants included 78 teachers (30 physical educators and 48 adapted physical educators). Descriptive statistics and group comparisons through a multivariate analysis of variance were conducted. Results: A significant difference in the implementation of the law between physical educators and adapted physical educators was detected, F(44, 33) = 2.60, p = .003; Wilk’s Λ = .224, ηp2=.78. Adapted physical educators were more involved in making decisions regarding the individualized education program process and student placement. Access to qualified staff was reported as a major barrier to implementation. Discussion/Conclusion: The implementation of the least restrictive environment law and its barriers are discussed.

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James E. Johnson, Chrysostomos Giannoulakis and Beau F. Scott

get out of that meeting. In addition to legal considerations, the political environment is largely influenced by individual state educational policies. Interviewees identified open enrollment as a primary political influence of competitive balance policy, particularly with regard to the public

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Phillip Ward and Shiri Ayvazo

Researchers, textbooks authors, and educational policy makers recommend peer tutoring as an inclusion strategy for students with autism. However, there is little, if any, research supporting these recommendations in physical education. We assessed the effects of classwide peer tutoring (CWPT) in teaching catching skills to two typically developing peers and two children diagnosed with autism in kindergarten. A single subject withdrawal design assessed the effects of CWPT on total catches and correct catches. Results show that CWPT improved total and correct catches for the two students with autism. The results for the typically developing peers were mixed. These findings, while requiring further research, provide initial evidence to support CWPT as an inclusion strategy for children with autism in physical education.

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Darla M. Castelli, Charles H. Hillman, Sarah M. Buck and Heather E. Erwin

The relationship between physical fitness and academic achievement has received much attention owing to the increasing prevalence of children who are overweight and unfit, as well as the inescapable pressure on schools to produce students who meet academic standards. This study examined 259 public school students in third and fifth grades and found that field tests of physical fitness were positively related to academic achievement. Specifically, aerobic capacity was positively associated with achievement, whereas BMI was inversely related. Associations were demonstrated in total academic achievement, mathematics achievement, and reading achievement, thus suggesting that aspects of physical fitness may be globally related to academic performance in preadolescents. The findings are discussed with regards to maximizing school performance and the implications for educational policies.

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Laura Chaddock, Michelle W. Voss and Arthur F. Kramer

Our increasingly inactive lifestyle is detrimental to physical and cognitive health. This review focuses on the beneficial relation of physical activity and aerobic fitness to the brain and cognitive health in a youth and elderly population to highlight the need to change this pattern. In children, increased physical activity and higher levels of aerobic fitness have been associated with superior academic achievement and cognitive processes. Differences in brain volumes and brain function of higher-fit and lower-fit peers are potential mechanisms underlying the performance differences in cognitive challenges. We hope that this research will encourage modifications in educational policies that will increase physical activity during the school day. In addition, older adults who participate in physical activity show higher performance on a variety of cognitive tasks, coupled with less risk of cognitive impairment. The cognitive enhancements are in part driven by less age-related brain tissue loss and increases in the efficiency of brain function. Given the increasing aging population and threat of dementia, research about the plasticity of the elderly active brain has important public health implications. Collectively, the data support that participation in physical activity could enhance daily functioning, learning, achievement, and brain health in children and the elderly.

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Kwok Ng, Jorma Tynjälä, Dagmar Sigmundová, Lilly Augustine, Mariane Sentenac, Pauli Rintala and Jo Inchley

meet the PARH. Cultural differences in educational policies, access to support services, and availability of PA opportunities may play a role. For example, both are Central and Eastern European countries, and segregated school systems are still commonplace for children with specific needs. This may

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Ben D. Kern, Suzan F. Ayers, Chad M. Killian and Amelia Mays Woods

and discussion . Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 38 . doi:10.1123/jtpe.2018-0210 Kretchmar , K. , Sondel , B. , & Ferrare , J.J. ( 2016 ). The power of the network: Teach For America’s impact on the deregulation of teacher education . Educational Policy, 32 , 423 – 453 . doi

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Ryan P. Terry

of Kansas, 2011 ). Zenger, a Kansas native, earned bachelor and master degrees from Kansas State University and his doctorate in educational policy and leadership from KU. When hired, KU chancellor Bernadette Gray-Little described Zenger as “. . . the best choice to lead Kansas Athletics into the

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Wesley J. Wilson, Steven K. Holland, Justin A. Haegele and K. Andrew R. Richards

increased perceived mattering. While there are some structural issues with the institution of schooling in the United States that need to be addressed at a larger level, these types of changes take time, as educational policy is slow moving. Accordingly, another approach is to help practitioners better cope

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Catherine Phipps

strategy . Retrieved from Brooks , R. , Byford , K. , & Sela , K. ( 2014 ). The changing role of students’ unions within contemporary higher education . Journal of Educational Policy, 30 ( 2 ), 165 – 181 . doi: 10