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Rachel Cole, Mohammad Javad Koohsari, Alison Carver, Neville Owen and Takemi Sugiyama

of any walking and walking ≥30 min/day, according to the Walk Score and street integration, for each age group. Because participants in the older age group are likely to be diverse, we further tested effect modification within this group by dividing them into 65–70 and 71–84 years old (median split

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Astrid Steinbrecher, Eva Erber, Andrew Grandinetti, Claudio Nigg, Laurence N. Kolonel and Gertraud Maskarinec

Background:

Physical inactivity is an established risk factor for diabetes; however, little is known about this association across ethnic groups with different diabetes risk. Therefore, we evaluated the association between physical activity and diabetes and potential effect modification by ethnicity in the Hawaii component of the Multiethnic Cohort.

Methods:

Participants, aged 45 to 75 years, were enrolled by completing a questionnaire on demographics, diet, and self-reported weekly hours of strenuous sports, vigorous work, and moderate activity. Among the 74,913 participants (39% Caucasian, 14% Native Hawaiian, 47% Japanese American), 8561 incident diabetes cases were identified by self-report, a medication questionnaire, and through health plan linkages. Cox regression was applied to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) while adjusting for known confounders.

Results:

Engaging in strenuous sports was inversely related to diabetes risk with HRs (4+ hours/week vs. never) of 0.67 (95%CI: 0.57–0.79) in women and 0.80 (95%CI: 0.72–0.88) in men. In stratified analyses, the inverse association was consistent across ethnic groups. The inverse association of vigorous work with diabetes was limited to men, while beneficial effects of moderate activity were observed only in Caucasians.

Conclusions:

These findings support a role of high-intensity physical activity and ethnic-specific guidelines in diabetes prevention.

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Lilian G. Perez, Terry L. Conway, Adrian Bauman, Jacqueline Kerr, John P. Elder, Elva M. Arredondo and James F. Sallis

Background: Associations between the built environment and physical activity (PA) may vary by sociodemographic factors. However, such evidence from international studies is limited. This study tested the moderating effects of sociodemographic factors on associations between perceived environment and self-reported total PA among adults from the International Prevalence Study. Methods: Between 2002 and 2003, adults from 9 countries (N = 10,258) completed surveys assessing total PA (International Physical Activity Questionnaire-short), perceived environment, and sociodemographics (age, gender, and education). Total PA was dichotomized as meeting/not meeting (a) high PA levels and (b) minimum PA guidelines. Logistic models tested environment by sociodemographic interactions (24 total). Results: Education and gender moderated the association between safety from crime and meeting high PA levels (interaction P < .05), with inverse associations found only among the high education group and men. Education and gender also moderated associations of safety from crime and the presence of transit stops with meeting minimum PA guidelines (interaction P < .05), with positive associations found for safety from crime only among women and presence of transit stops only among men and the high education group. Conclusions: The limited number of moderating effects found provides support for population-wide environment–PA associations. International efforts to improve built environments are needed to promote health-enhancing PA and maintain environmental sustainability.

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Karin I. Proper, Ester Cerin and Neville Owen

Background:

There is an inverse relationship between individual socio-economic status (SES) and amount of occupational physical activity. The role of the socio-economic environment is, however, less clear. This study examined the independent influences of neighborhood and individual SES on absolute and relative amount of occupational physical activity. It also examined the moderating effects of neighborhood SES on the relationship between individual SES and occupational physical activity.

Methods:

Employees (n = 1236) resident in high or low SES neighborhoods were assessed on socio-demographic factors, including educational attainment and household income, and physical activity.

Results:

Neighborhood SES and individual SES were independently inversely related to absolute and relative amount of occupational physical activity. Significant interactions between neighborhood SES and level of educational attainment in the contribution of total and vigorous occupational physical activity to total physical activity were found.

Conclusions:

Neighborhood SES can function as a moderator in the relationship between individual SES and occupational physical activity.

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Jennifer K. Coffeng, Esther M. van Sluijs, Ingrid J.M. Hendriksen, Willem van Mechelen and Cécile R.L. Boot

Background:

Research is needed to better understand the associations between during-work and after-work-hours physical activity and relaxation and need for recovery (NFR), so a study of these variables in office workers at a financial service provider was undertaken.

Methods:

Self-reported baseline data of 412 employees (mean age = 41.3 y; 39.6% women) were used. Linear regression analyses were performed to test associations of physical activity, relaxation, detachment, and breaks at work with NFR.

Results:

A lower NFR was significantly positively associated with standing, stair climbing, active lunch break, relaxation at work, detachment at work, physical detachment at work, relaxation at home, and detachment at home. In the multiple model, a lower NFR was independently positively associated with frequency of stair climbing, minutes spent in leisure activities, detachment at work, physical detachment at work, and relaxation and detachment at home (P < .05). Significant effect modification indicated that the positive association between relaxation at home and NFR was stronger with high job demands.

Conclusion:

Although prospective evidence is necessary to confirm the causal relationships, our findings suggest that engaging in stair climbing, leisure activities, (physical) detachment at work, relaxation and detachment after work is associated with a lower NFR. For future work site health promotion initiatives, interventions might be targeted at improving physical activity and relaxation.

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Brad R. Julius, B. Ann Ward, James H. Stein, Patrick E. McBride, Michael C. Fiore, Timothy B. Baker, F. Javier Nieto and Lisa H. Colbert

Background:

We examined the association between ambulatory activity and biological markers of health in smokers.

Methods:

Baseline data from 985 subjects enrolled in a pharmacologic smoking cessation trial were examined. Body size, blood pressure, total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total and small LDL particles, LDL size, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), C-reactive protein (CRP), creatinine, fasting glucose, and hemoglobin A1c were assessed in relation to pedometer-assessed ambulatory activity, as was the odds of metabolic syndrome and CRP > 3 mg/L. Effect modification by gender was examined.

Results:

Only waist circumference was lower with greater steps/day in the men and women combined (P trend < 0.001). No other significant relationships were noted in men, while women with ≥ 7500 steps/day had lower weight, BMI, CRP, TG, total, and small LDL particles compared with those with < 7500 steps/day. These women also had 62% and 43% lower odds of metabolic syndrome and elevated CRP, respectively, compared with the less active women. Adjustment for BMI attenuated all the associations seen in women.

Conclusions:

Greater ambulatory activity is associated with lower levels of metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in female smokers which may, in part, be mediated by a reduction in BMI.

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Sylvia E. Badon, Alyson J. Littman, K.C. Gary Chan, Michelle A. Williams and Daniel A. Enquobahrie

Background: Although perinatal walking and yoga have been associated with decreased risks of pregnancy complications, associations with offspring birth size have been inconsistent. We investigated associations of prepregnancy and early pregnancy leisure-time light/moderate walking and yoga practice with birth size. Methods: Study participants (N = 3687) reported leisure-time physical activity duration (hours per week) in the year before pregnancy and early pregnancy. Birth size was abstracted from medical records. Regression was used to determine mean differences in birth weight, head circumference, and ponderal index. Interaction terms were used to assess effect modification by offspring sex. Results: About one-third of women reported light/moderate leisure-time walking and about 10% reported yoga practice. Women in the highest tertile for prepregnancy (mean: 2.9 h/wk; range: 1.4–20 h/wk) or early pregnancy (mean: 5.9 h/wk; range: 3.1–24 h/wk) light/moderate walking had offspring with 0.9 and 1.5 kg/m3 greater ponderal index (95% confidence interval, 0.3 to 1.4 and 0.7 to 2.4, respectively) compared with women who reported no light/moderate walking in the same time period. Light/moderate walking was not associated with birth weight or head circumference. Yoga practice was not associated with birth size. Associations were similar by offspring sex. Conclusion: Light/moderate leisure-time walking may be associated with greater offspring ponderal index.

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Akio Kubota, Alison Carver and Takemi Sugiyama

variability in environmental attributes may also be a reason for not detecting significant effect modification. Further research recruiting participants from diverse areas (urban and rural) is needed to confirm the role of environmental attributes in associations between older adults’ social engagement and

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Teun van Erp, Marco Hoozemans, Carl Foster and Jos J. de Koning

sRPE, luTRIMP, or TSS. This association is affected (or modified) by IF when the regression coefficients (or slopes) of the 3 TLs (sRPE, luTRIMP, or TSS) are different for the exercise sessions with a low or high IF. Statistically, this would mean that the interaction (effect modification) between TL

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Dariush Sheikholeslami-Vatani, Slahadin Ahmadi and Hassan Faraji

conditions. The failure of the interaction may be due to the actual absence of effect modification, or it may reflect inadequate sample size. In support of the current results, it was reported that a single bout of strenuous exercise increased cytosolic cytochrome c levels ( Koçtürk et al., 2008 ). As