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M. Ryan Flett, Daniel Gould, Katherine R. Griffes, and Larry Lauer

The following study explored coaching behaviors and youth coaches’ justifications for their actions by comparing more effective and less effective coaches from an underserved setting. Reasons for their coaching behaviors were also explored. In-depth interviews and ethnographic observations were conducted with 12 coaches from 6 different youth sports. Support for each theme from the analysis was compared between the 6 more effective and 6 less effective coaches. Less effective coaches tried to create a sense of family within the team, but used very negative, militaristic coaching strategies that were not developmentally appropriate. Less effective coaches justified the negative approach because of the perceived dangers in the inner city and attempted to toughen their players through harsher methods. More effective coaches challenged players while being supportive, attempted to develop close relationships along with a positive team climate, and promoted autonomy and the transfer of life skills from sport to life. More effective coaches appeared to be more open to coach training and others’ ideas—they could be described as lifelong learners. The results from this study not only reveal how more and less effective coaches differ, but provide possible insight as to why they differ. The study provides unique insights for researchers and coaching educators interested in particularly underserved settings and in developing less effective coaches.

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Brian T. Gearity

A multitude of discourses inside and outside of sport suggest the value of winning. The result of these discourses has contributed to the belief that winning is evidence of effective coaching and that winning is the aim of sport. This paper begins by describing several of the winning discourses constructed by the media, academic community, sport stakeholders, and coaches. Furthermore, I argue that the winning discourse has tacitly contributed to coaches identifying the outcome of a sport contest (e.g., win or loss) as an appropriate measure of good, effective coaching. After identifying the perils of this view and associated illogical thinking, I suggest the creation of new discourses related to the educational foundations of effective coaching.

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Zoe Avner, Pirkko Markula, and Jim Denison

Drawing on a modified version of Foucault’s (1972) analysis of discursive formations, we selected key coach education texts in Canada to examine what discourses currently shape effective coaching in Canada in order to detect what choices Canadian coaches have to know about “being an effective coach.” We then compared the most salient aspects of our reading to the International Sport Coaching Framework. Our Foucauldian reading of the two Canadian coach education websites showed that the present set of choices for coaches to practice “effectively” is narrow and that correspondingly the potential for change and innovation is limited in scope. Our comparison with the International Sport Coaching Framework, however, showed more promise as we found that its focus on the development of coach competences allowed for different coaching knowledges and coaching aims than a narrow focus on performance and results. We then conclude this Insights Paper by offering some comments on the implications of our Foucauldian reading as well as some suggestions to address our concerns about the dominance of certain knowledges and the various effects of this dominance for athletes, coaches, coach development and the coaching profession at large.

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Andrea J. Becker and Craig A. Wrisberg

The purpose of this study was to systematically examine the practice behaviors of Pat Summitt, the winningest collegiate basketball coach in NCAA Division I history. Throughout the 2004–05 season, Summitt’s verbal and nonverbal behaviors were video recorded during six practices. A total of 3,296 behaviors were observed and coded using the Arizona State University Observation Instrument (Lacy & Darst, 1984). Results indicated that 55% (n = 1810) of Summitt’s behaviors were directed toward the team, whereas 45% (n = 1,486) were directed toward individual players. The most frequent behavior was instruction (48%, n = 1,586) followed by praise (14.5%, n = 478) and hustle (10.7%, n = 351). Contrary to predictions, no differences were found in the quantity or quality of the coaching behaviors that Summitt directed toward high and low expectancy players.

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John Lyle

criteria of effective coaching. Pedagogy, environment, performance, and relationships will each be associated with a set of criteria that may lead to more effective practice but taken in isolation can only render a partial account. Similarly, the contribution of characteristic behaviors is also problematic

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Inge Milius, Wade D. Gilbert, Danielle Alexander, and Gordon A. Bloom

functioning and positive psychological momentum ( Fransen et al., 2012 ; Moesch & Apitzsch, 2012 ). Despite being a frequent and normal form of interaction between teammates, positive tactile communication as a potentially effective coaching strategy has yet to be examined in real-time coaching situations (i

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Ahmad F. Mohd Kassim and Ian D. Boardley

athlete-level outcomes that should result from effective coaching: competence, confidence, connection, and character. Consistent with these proposed outcomes, research on coaching effectiveness has identified significant associations between athletes’ assessments of their coach’s effectiveness and

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Christoph Szedlak, Matthew J. Smith, Bettina Callary, and Melissa C. Day

learning professional knowledge, as well as interpersonal and intrapersonal knowledge, in order to develop an effective coaching practice. In adopting a lifelong learning approach, coaches learn from experience through reflection, adding to their knowledge of how they interact with others (interpersonal

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Louis Moustakas and John Bales

. These experts were engaged in one-on-one interviews to source their feedback related to the wording and relevance of the recommendations and indicators. In particular, these interviews focused on two main questions: (a) Is the recommendation an important element of building an effective coaching policy

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Anne O’Dwyer and Richard Bowles

coaching practices. Their biographies as teacher educators and a familiarity with self-study as a research approach influenced their decision to explore this approach to support their coach learning. Literature Review In their definition of effective coaching, Côté and Gilbert ( 2009 ) recognize the