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Sharon Hetherington, Paul Swinton, Tim Henwood, Justin Keogh, Paul Gardiner, Anthony Tuckett, Kevin Rouse and Tracy Comans

to exercise for adults with aged-care needs. Cost-effectiveness data for any such exercise programs are scant, making it difficult for organizations to evaluate, select, and plan for the implementation of a specific intervention. In this article, we assessed the cost-effectiveness of Muscling Up

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Colin G. Pennington, Matthew D. Curtner-Smith and Stefanie A. Wind

same design as Melville and Maddalozzo ( 1988 ) to examine the influence of a teacher’s disability on students’ perceptions of the teacher’s effectiveness and learning. This time students watched one of two virtually identical films of a female teacher teaching swimming. In one film, the teacher was

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Sarah Lawrason, Jennifer Turnnidge, Luc J. Martin and Jean Côté

supporting the effectiveness of TFL training on follower outcomes in a variety of contexts (e.g., organizations, Barling, Weber, & Kelloway, 1996 ; education, Beauchamp, Barling, & Morton, 2011 ), only one study has looked at the impact of a TFL-based intervention in sport. Vella et al. ( 2013 ) found that

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A. Mark Williams, Joan Vickers and Sergio Rodrigues

Processing efficiency theory predicts that anxiety reduces the processing capacity of working memory and has detrimental effects on performance. When tasks place little demand on working memory, the negative effects of anxiety can be avoided by increasing effort. Although performance efficiency decreases, there is no change in performance effectiveness. When tasks impose a heavy demand on working memory, however, anxiety leads to decrements in efficiency and effectiveness. These presumptions were tested using a modified table tennis task that placed low (LWM) and high (HWM) demands on working memory. Cognitive anxiety was manipulated through a competitive ranking structure and prize money. Participants’ accuracy in hitting concentric circle targets in predetermined sequences was taken as a measure of performance effectiveness, while probe reaction time (PRT), perceived mental effort (RSME), visual search data, and arm kinematics were recorded as measures of efficiency. Anxiety had a negative effect on performance effectiveness in both LWM and HWM tasks. There was an increase in frequency of gaze and in PRT and RSME values in both tasks under high vs. low anxiety conditions, implying decrements in performance efficiency. However, participants spent more time tracking the ball in the HWM task and employed a shorter tau margin when anxious. Although anxiety impaired performance effectiveness and efficiency, decrements in efficiency were more pronounced in the HWM task than in the LWM task, providing support for processing efficiency theory.

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Laura B. Russ, Collin A. Webster, Michael W. Beets and David S. Phillips

Background:

A “whole-of-school” approach is nationally endorsed to increase youth physical activity (PA). Aligned with this approach, comprehensive school physical activity programs (CSPAP) are recommended. Distinct components of a CSPAP include physical education (PE), PA during the school day (PADS), PA before/after school (PABAS), staff wellness (SW), and family/community engagement (FCE). The effectiveness of interventions incorporating multiple CSPAP components is unclear. A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted examining the effectiveness of multicomponent interventions on youth total daily PA.

Methods:

Electronic databases were searched for published studies that (1) occurred in the US; (2) targeted K–12 (5–18 years old); (3) were interventions; (4) reflected ≥ 2 CSPAP components, with at least 1 targeting school-based PA during school hours; and (5) reported outcomes as daily PA improvements. Standardized mean effects (Hedge’s g) from pooled random effects inverse-variance models were estimated.

Results:

Across 14 studies, 12 included PE, 5 PADS, 1 PABAS, 2 SW, and 14 FCE. No studies included all 5 CSPAP components. Overall, intervention impact was small (0.11, 95% CI 0.03–0.19).

Conclusions:

As designed, there is limited evidence of the effectiveness of multicomponent interventions to increase youth total daily PA. Increased alignment with CSPAP recommendations may improve intervention effectiveness.

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Dorianne Schuitema, Christian Greve, Klaas Postema, Rienk Dekker and Juha M. Hijmans

effectiveness of mechanical treatment on plantar fasciitis has previously been investigated. 4 , 12 – 18 However, these studies were limited to specific mechanical devices or compared mechanical devices to nonmechanical interventions such as stretching and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. An overview of

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Afroditi Stathi and Simon J. Sebire

Background:

Inner-city schools experience substantial difficulties in providing sufficient physical activity opportunities for their pupils. This study evaluated the Y-Active, an outreach physical activity and well-being program delivered in an inner-city primary school in London, UK by a third-sector partner.

Methods:

A process evaluation focusing on perceived effectiveness and implementation issues was conducted using qualitative case-study methodology. Semistructured interviews and focus groups were conducted with Year 5 and Year 6 pupils (N = 17, age range = 9 to 11 years), Y-Active sports leaders (N = 4), the school head teacher, class teachers (N = 2), and the Y-Active administrator. Transcripts were thematically analyzed and multiple informant and analyst triangulation performed.

Results:

The Y-Active leaders created a positive learning environment supporting autonomy, balancing discipline and structure and providing self-referenced feedback, excellence in tuition and a strong focus on fun and praise. Pupils reported improvements in self-confidence and competence, self-discipline and interpersonal relationships. School staff and Y-Active leaders highlighted that their partnership was built on trust, top-down leadership support and open lines of communication between the provider and the school.

Conclusions:

Collaboration between third sector service providers and inner-city schools represents a promising means of increasing children’s physical activity and well-being.

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Jon Welty Peachey, Laura Burton, Janelle Wells and Mi Ryoung Chung

long-term effectiveness for their initiatives ( Welty Peachey et al., 2017 ). Although there are SDP organizations that have survived and even thrived in their work, such as the international NGO Right to Play and Magic Bus in India, these are not without critiques of their neocolonialist development

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Desmond McEwan, Bruno D. Zumbo, Mark A. Eys and Mark R. Beauchamp

; Collins & Durand-Bush, 2015 ). There has also been recent qualitative research that has examined how teamwork relates to various other components of team effectiveness in sport, such as team trust, unity, and leadership ( Webster, Hardy, & Hardy, 2017 ). Hence, it appears that research on teamwork within

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Gregory Knell, Henry S. Brown, Kelley P. Gabriel, Casey P. Durand, Kerem Shuval, Deborah Salvo and Harold W. Kohl III

conducting a cost-effectiveness analysis. 4 , 5 Cost-effectiveness analyses express health outcomes as a unit of effect that is then presented in a ratio of cost, such as cost per life year saved or cost per case averted. In evaluations of interventions to increase physical activity, this ratio is often