This study examined the relationship between coaches’ efficacy expectations for their teams, ratings of opponents’ ability, perceived control over outcome, perceived importance of success, and basketball performance. A second purpose was to identify sources of coaches’ team efficacy. Four collegiate women’s basketball coaches completed questionnaires prior to 10 basketball games (N = 40). Results indicated that coaches’ efficacy was significantly correlated with perceived control over the outcome (the higher their efficacy, the higher their perceived control). Regression analysis found that coaches’ efficacy was a significant predictor of making free throws and committing few turnovers and that perceived opponent ability was a significant predictor of coaches’ efficacy. An inductive content analysis of the sources of coaches’ efficacy beliefs identified sources of high and low efficacy for coaches (e.g., previous game performance, practice performance, comparison with opponent).
Melissa A. Chase, Deborah L. Feltz and Cathy D. Lirgg
Emilio J. Martínez-López, Nestor Zamora-Aguilera, Alberto Grao-Cruces and Manuel J. De la Torre-Cruz
The aim of this study was to investigate the association between Spanish physical education teachers’ perceived self-efficacy toward including overweight and obese students and their attitudes toward overweight and obese students.
Four hundred and seventy-one physical education teachers filled out questionnaires to assess their self-efficacy expectations to meet overweight and obese students’ educational needs, and to identify physical education teachers’ beliefs and attitudes toward these students.
The physical education teachers with a higher perceived self-efficacy in fostering participation and in assessing and promoting overweight and obese students’ learning were more sensitive toward these students’ fitness and healthcare and showed less pejorative attitudes toward overweight and obesity.
These results highlight the need for teaching education programs capable of increasing the physical education teachers’ perceived self-efficacy in this area. The results also show that there is a need for training for teachers and students in strategies aimed at reducing the cases of victimization of overweight and obese students.
Terry Duncan and Edward McAuley
Bandura (1977) has proposed self-efficacy as a common cognitive mechanism accounting for the effects of various psychological processes on performance. Although recent studies have provided preliminary evidence for the relationship between self-efficacy and subsequent performance on competitive motor tasks, little has been done to examine the relationship between self-efficacy and the cognitive appraisal of competitive sport information. The purpose of this study was to determine if a relationship exists between personal self-efficacy and the causal explanations given for performance in a competitive sport setting. Subjects were manipulated into high and low efficacy groups, engaged in a competitive motor task against an opponent, and then gave causal attributions for outcome. Multivariate analyses did not reveal any significant differences between high and low efficacy groups' causal explanations for outcome. However, winners made more stable and controllable attributions than did losers. The results are discussed in terms of the possible perception of lack of responsibility for outcomes that do not occur in natural environments, consequently eliminating the need for causal ascriptions.
Robert S. Weinberg, David Yukelson and Allen Jackson
The present investigation was designed to extend Weinberg, Gould, and Jackson's (1979) efficacy-performance results to a back-to-back competitive situation as well as to determine whether performance would be affected by the solicitation of public vs. private expectancy statements. Subjects (56 males and 56 females) were randomly assigned to either a high or low self-efficacy condition and either stated their expectancy of success publicly or privately in a 2 × 2 × 2 (sex × self-efficacy × publiclprivate) factorial design. Self-efficacy was manipulated by having subjects compete against a confederate on a muscular leg-endurance task in which the confederate was said to be either a varsity track athlete who exhibited higher performance on a related task (low self-efficacy), or an individual who had a knee injury and exhibited poorer performance on a related task (high self-efficacy). The results supported self-efficacy predictions, and thus extended Weinberg et al.'s findings to a back-to-back competitive situation. The public/private manipulation produced no significant performance effects. In addition, the sex by self-efficacy interaction indicated that the self-efficacy main effect was due primarily to high-efficacy males extending their legs significantly longer than low-efficacy males. These results are discussed in terms of the differing patterns of sex-role socialization.
Geoff P. Lovell, John K. Parker and Gary J. Slater
Research in sports-science disciplines such as sport psychology has demonstrated that practitioners’ physical characteristics influence clients’ perceptions of their effectiveness, potentially mediating the efficacy of subsequent interventions. However, very little research has been directed toward this issue for sports dietitians (SDs), the health professionals whom athletes are likely to engage to assist with manipulation of traits of physique. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to determine whether SDs’ phenotype, specifically body-mass index (BMI), and type of dress influence potential clients’ preference to consult them for dietetic support and if this affects their perceived effectiveness.
One hundred volunteers (mean age 18.7 ± 0 .8 years) all participating in regular competitive sport, classified by gender (male, n = 55, or female, n = 45) and competitive standard (elite/subelite, n = 68, or club/recreational, n = 32) viewed slides representing four concurrently presented computer-generated images of the same female SD manipulated to represent different BMIs and dress types. Participants were asked to rank the SDs in order of their preference to work with them and, second, to rate their perceived effectiveness of each of the SDs.
Key findings included the observation of a significant BMI main effect F(6, 91) = 387.39, p < .001 (effect size .96), with participants’ ranking of preference and rating of perceived effectiveness of female SDs decreasing with increasing BMI.
SDs should consider their physical appearance when meeting with athletes, as this may affect their perceived efficacy.
The purpose of this study was to test a model of overall activity in older adults. It was hypothesized that (a) mental and physical health directly influence sell-efficacy expectations; (b) mental and physical health, age, and self-efficacy expectations influence outcome expectations; and (c) all of these variables directly or indirectly influence overall activity. The sample included 175 older adults living in a continuing care retirement community, and a one-time interview was conducted. The mean age of the participants was 86 ± 5.7 years, and the majority were Caucasian (n = 173, 99%), women (n = 136, 78%), and unmarried (widowed or single; n = 137, 78%). Seven of the 10 hypothesized paths were significant. The variables physical health, self-efficacy expectations. and outcome expectations directly influenced activity, and age and mental health indirectly influenced activity through self-efficacy and outcome expectations. The data fit the model, and combined, these variables accounted for 29% of the variance in activity.
Barbara Resnick, Kathleen Michael, Marianne Shaughnessy, Eun Shim Nahm, Susan Kopunek, John Sorkin, Denise Orwig, Andrew Goldberg and Richard F. Macko
Self-report measures of physical activity have well-known drawbacks, and physiologic measures alone do not account for behavioral variables important in the perception and performance of physical activity. Therefore, we considered multiple measures to quantify physical activity in community-dwelling men and women with chronic stroke.
This analysis included data from a volunteer sample of 87 individuals at least 6 months poststroke. Physical activity was measured using self-report questionnaires, step activity monitors, self-efficacy expectations related to exercise, and VO2peak from treadmill testing, and a model of physical activity was tested.
Most of the variance in objective physical activity was explained by VO2peak, and most of the variance in subjective physical activity was explained by self-efficacy expectations. There were significant discrepancies between subjective and objective findings.
This study helps to understand the perspective of stroke survivors with regard to physical activity.
Deborah L. Feltz, Daniel M. Landers and Ursula Raeder
This study investigated the effectiveness of participant, live, and videotape modeling on the learning of a high-avoidance springboard-diving task (back dive). The effectiveness of each form of modeling upon the strength of self-efficacy also was investigated. In accord with Bandura's (1977) self-efficacy theory, it was hypothesized that the participant-modeling group would perform more correct back dives and would show stronger efficacy expectations compared to the live-modeling group which in turn would perform better on these measures than the videotape group. Results indicated that the participant-modeling treatment produced more successful dives and stronger expectations of personal efficacy than either the live-modeling or videotaped-modeling treatments. The hypothesis that students in the live-modeling condition would perform better behaviorally and show stronger efficacy expectations than students in the videotape condition was not supported.
In the article by Martínez-López, E.J., Zamora-Aguilera, N., Grao-Cruces, A., and De la Torre-Cruz, M.J., “The Association Between Spanish Physical Education Teachers’ Self-Efficacy Expectations and Their Attitudes Toward Overweight and Obese Students,” in Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 36, 2, https://doi.org/10.1123/jtpe.2014-0125, the author order was incorrectly listed. The online version of this article has been corrected.
Yuhanis Adnan, Alex McKenzie and Motohide Miyahara
The purpose was to compare quad rugby male athletes with a lesion-matched group of persons without quad rugby experience on self-efficacy expectations for performing quad rugby skills (SEQRS) and activities of daily living (SEADL) skills. Each group contained 15 participants. The experimental design was ex post facto. Mann-Whitney U Tests revealed that quad rugby participants scored significantly higher on all 11 items comprising the SEQRS and 4 of the 28 items comprising SEADL. Correlations between SEQRS and SEADL were .75 and .92 for the QR participants and nonparticipants, respectively.