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Levi Heimans, Wouter R. Dijkshoorn, Marco J.M. Hoozemans, and Jos J. de Koning

(Ap) and a drag coefficient (Cd), which is related to the shape of an object and the efficiency with which it moves through air. 6 The product of Ap and Cd is known as drag area (Ad). Reduction of this aerodynamic drag as a result of drafting can be expressed as a ratio (percentage) of the required

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Geoffrey T. Burns, Kenneth M. Kozloff, and Ronald F. Zernicke

movement. Why? Beyond its role in our evolutionary history, it is not unreasonable to wonder—why should we still focus on efficient movement? It is easy to appreciate the role of efficiency in optimizing athletic performance, where competition puts a premium on maximizing effectiveness while minimizing

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Sjors Groot, Lars H.J. van de Westelaken, Dionne A. Noordhof, Koen Levels, and Jos J. de Koning

According to the performance model of Joyner and Coyle, 1 performance power output or velocity is mainly determined by (1) maximal oxygen uptake ( V ˙ O 2 max), (2)  V ˙ O 2 at the lactate threshold, (3) performance O 2 deficit (ie, anaerobic capacity), and (4) efficiency. The efficiency of an

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Toshiki Kobayashi, Fan Gao, Nicholas LeCursi, K. Bo Foreman, and Michael S. Orendurff

orthoses. The mechanical properties of AFOs, such as stiffness (moment per degree) and energy efficiency (ratio of released energy to stored energy), have been characterized using various mechanical testing devices, 1 – 3 and their effects on gait in individuals with neuromuscular diseases have been

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Shaun Abbott, Goshi Yamauchi, Mark Halaki, Marcela Torres Castiglioni, James Salter, and Stephen Cobley

positions coupled with complementary (biomechanically appropriate) arm and leg actions. 20 While challenging to quantify, reliable indicators of estimating technical skill proficiency, such as stroke index (SI) and arm propelling efficiency, have been developed . 21 Field-based assessment of these

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Billy C.L. So, Sze C. Kwok, and Paul H. Lee

beneficial effects of aquatic PA on objectively measured sleep quality in individuals with chronic MSK pain. This study was designed to investigate the effect of moderate-intensity (aerobic) aquatic exercise on sleep efficiency, sleep quality, pain, stress, and PA using an ActiGraph (Pensacola, FL) and self

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Marko Milic, Danica Janicijevic, Aleksandar Nedeljkovic, Ivan Cuk, Milos Mudric, and Amador García-Ramos

Fencing is classified as an open, complex, and unpredictable sport in which success is greatly affected by attack efficiency ( Sorel, Plantard, Bideau, & Pontonnier, 2019 ). Previous studies have identified similar factors when defining what is often called “successful attack performance.” For

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Veronique Richard, Justin Mason, Stacey Alvarez-Alvarado, Inbal Perry, Benoit Lussier, and Gershon Tenenbaum

minute, while SL represents the distance covered by each stroke. The SR is thus an index of propelling efficiency and is expressed by the ratio of swimming speed to SR ( Zamparo, Pendergast, et al., 2005 ). Consequently, an increase in speed is obtained mainly by increasing SR, while the SL remains

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Arne Nieuwenhuys, J. Rob Pijpers, Raôul R.D. Oudejans, and Frank C. Bakker

The object of the current study was to investigate anxiety-induced changes in movement and gaze behavior in novices on a climbing wall. Identical traverses were situated at high and low levels on a climbing wall to manipulate anxiety. In line with earlier studies, climbing times and movement times increased under anxiety. These changes were accompanied by similar changes in total and average fixation duration and the number of fixations, which were primarily aimed at the holds used for climbing. In combination with these findings, a decrease in search rate provided evidence for a decrease in processing efficiency as anxiety increased.

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Richard Ebreo, Louis Passfield, and James Hopker

Gross efficiency (GE) is defined as the ratio of work generated to the metabolic energy cost and has been shown to be a key component of cycling performance. 1 , 2 The calculation of GE is conventionally determined from steady state measures where energy expenditure from purely aerobic processes