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Alyson J. Crozier and Kevin S. Spink

The primary purpose of this research was to examine the influence of different normative (descriptive, injunctive) messages on individual self-reported effort in sport. Adult recreational volleyball athletes (n = 58) reported their self-perceived effort, were randomly assigned through their team designation to one of three conditions (descriptive norm, injunctive norm, control) and then received multiple e-mail messages specific to their condition motivating them to work hard. Participants reported their self-perceived effort a second time after receipt of these messages. The results from a one-way ANCOVA, controlling for initial perceived effort, revealed that those in the normative conditions reported greater perceived effort than those in the control condition. Preliminary evidence is provided suggesting that individual self-reported effort may be significantly impacted by the perception of what others are doing and what others approve of within that environment (i.e., normative information).

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Jeremy C. Young, Nicholas G. Dowell, Peter W. Watt, Naji Tabet, and Jennifer M. Rusted

While there is evidence that age-related changes in cognitive performance and brain structure can be offset by increased exercise, little is known about the impact long-term high-effort endurance exercise has on these functions. In a cross-sectional design with 12-month follow-up, we recruited older adults engaging in high-effort endurance exercise over at least 20 years, and compared their cognitive performance and brain structure with a nonsedentary control group similar in age, sex, education, IQ, and lifestyle factors. Our findings showed no differences on measures of speed of processing, executive function, incidental memory, episodic memory, working memory, or visual search for older adults participating in long-term high-effort endurance exercise, when compared without confounds to nonsedentary peers. On tasks that engaged significant attentional control, subtle differences emerged. On indices of brain structure, long-term exercisers displayed higher white matter axial diffusivity than their age-matched peers, but this did not correlate with indices of cognitive performance.

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Sofia I. Lampropoulou and Alexander V. Nowicky

The way psychometric and neurophysiological measurements of fatigue are connected is not well understood. Thus, the time course of perceived effort changes due to fatigue, as well as the peripheral and central neurophysiological changes accompanying fatigue, were evaluated. Twelve healthy participants (35 ± 9 years old) undertook 10 min intermittent isometric fatiguing exercise of elbow flexors at 50% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). Perceived effort ratings, using the 0–10 numeric rating scale (NRS), were recorded at midrange of MVC. Single pulse TMS of the left motor cortex and electrical stimulation over the biceps muscle was used for the assessment of voluntary activation and peripheral fatigue. The fatiguing exercise caused a 44% reduction in the MVC (p < .001) accompanied by an 18% nonsignificant reduction of the biceps MEP amplitude. The resting twitch force decreased (p < .001) while the superimposed twitches increased (p < .001) causing a decrease (19%) of the voluntary activation (p < .001). The perceived effort ratings increased by 1 point at 30%, by 2 points at 50% MVC respectively on the NRS (p < .001) and were accompanied by an increase in mean biceps EMG. A substantial role of the perceived effort in the voluntary motor control system was revealed.

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Stacey M. Kung, Philip W. Fink, Stephen J. Legg, Ajmol Ali, and Sarah P. Shultz

to ongoing exercise, which would require knowledge from previous experiences. Research has demonstrated that individuals can successfully adjust their exercise intensity to maintain a given rating of perceived exertion (RPE) ( 6 , 7 , 33 ). The ability to rate perceived effort and produce exercise

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Jenna D. Gilchrist, David E. Conroy, and Catherine M. Sabiston

Sport and exercise contexts are achievement domains that may be affected by various emotional and affective experiences. Specifically, affective experience is a predictor of the quality (e.g., effort) and quantity (e.g., time) of physical activity behavior ( Ekkekakis, Hall, & Petruzzello, 2005

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Tsz Lun (Alan) Chu, Tao Zhang, Katherine T. Thomas, Xiaoxia Zhang, and Xiangli Gu

& Deci, 2001 ). In the context of PE, some commonly studied adaptive outcomes include effort, concentration, persistence, and interest in PE ( Taylor & Lonsdale, 2010 ; Xiang et al., 2018 ). In contrast to the adaptive outcomes that are derived from satisfaction of the BPNs, maladaptive outcomes, such

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Pepijn K.C. van de Pol, Maria Kavussanu, and Christopher Ring

This study examined whether (a) training and competition influence achievement goals, effort, enjoyment, tension, and performance; (b) achievement goals mediate the effects of training and competition on effort, enjoyment, tension, and performance; and (c) the context influences the relationships between goals and effort, enjoyment, tension, and performance. Participants (32 males, 28 females; M age = 19.12 years) performed a golf-putting task in a training condition and a competition condition and completed measures of goal involvement, effort, enjoyment, and tension; putting performance was also measured. Both task and ego involvement varied across training and competition, and variation in ego involvement explained variation in effort and enjoyment between these conditions. Ego involvement positively predicted effort in training and performance in competition, and interacted positively with task involvement to predict effort and enjoyment in competition. Our findings suggest that the distinction between training and competition is a valuable one when examining individuals’ achievement motivation.

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Thomas R. George

Using path analytic techniques, the causal relationships in Bandura's model of self-efficacy were examined in a field setting. Male intercollegiate and interscholastic baseball players (N = 53) completed self-report measures over a nine-game period during the baseball season. Perceptions of self-efficacy, competitive state anxiety, effort expenditure, and objective hitting performance were measured. Moderate support for Bandura's model was found in that higher performances predicted stronger percepts of efficacy in six games, and lower levels of somatic and cognitive anxiety were associated with stronger self-efficacy beliefs in seven games. In turn, stronger self-efficacy predicted greater effort in six games and higher hitting performance in five games. Results are discussed in relation to the ecological validity of previous causal examinations of self-efficacy theory, as well as the utility of self-efficacy theory as a framework for investigating the self-confidence-performance relationship.

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Anthony J. Amorose and Peter J.K. Smith

Extending the research by Amorose and Weiss (1998), the present study tested whether experience level moderates the interpretation of coaching feedback as a cue of ability in younger and older children, and examined how descriptive and prescriptive informational feedback are used as a source of competence information. Younger (7–10 years) and older (12–14 years) girls with either high or low experience playing softball watched a series of videotapes depicting four youth sport athletes attempting to hit a softball. After each attempt, whether successful or unsuccessful, a coach was heard giving each athlete a specific type of feedback, either evaluative, descriptive, prescriptive, or neutral. Participants then rated each athlete’s ability, effort, and future expectancy of success. Although the hypothesized experience-level by age-group by feedback-type interactions did not emerge, the results showed strong feedback main effects for ability, effort, and future success. Analysis of these results suggest that feedback provides important cues for ability, effort, and future expectations of success in the physical domain, and that children use several cues of competence information in addition to the coach’s feedback to derive competence information.

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Richard Mullen, Lew Hardy, and Andrew Tattersall

The aim of this study was to examine the conscious processing hypothesis as an explanation of the anxiety/performance relationship. The study was designed to identify conscious processing performance effects while controlling for an alternative attentional threshold explanation identified in previous research. Participants completed 60 golf putts. They completed 3 blocks of 10 putts in single task, task-relevant shadowing, and task-irrelevant tone-counting conditions. Each set of 3 × 10 putts was completed in low and high anxiety conditions. Anxiety was elevated using an instructional set. Self-reported effort and spectral analysis of heart rate variability were used to examine the patterning of effort across the different putting conditions. Findings indicated that performance was impaired in the high anxiety shadowing and tone-counting conditions, supporting an attentional threshold interpretation. Spectral analysis of heart rate variability indicated that potential compensatory increases in spectral power in the high frequency band associated with dual-task putting in the low anxiety condition were absent in the high anxiety tone-counting and shadowing putting conditions, partially reflecting the performance findings. No effects were found for self-reported effort. Taken together, the performance and heart rate variability results support an attentional interpretation of the anxiety/motor performance relationship.