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J. Ty Hopkins and Christopher D. Ingersoll


To define the concept of arthrogenic muscle inhibition (AMI), to discuss its implications in the rehabilitation of joint injury, to discuss the neurophysiologic events that lead to AMI, to evaluate the methods available to measure AM1 and the models that might be implemented to examine AMI, and to review therapeutic interventions that might reduce AMI.

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The databases MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, and CIHNAL were searched with the terms reflex inhibition, joint mechanoreceptor, Ib interneuron, Hoffmann reflex, effusion, and joint injury. The remaining citations were collected from references of similar papers.


AMI is a limiting factor in the rehabilitation of joint injury. It results in atrophy and deficiencies in strength and increases the susceptibility to further injury. A therapeutic intervention that results in decreased inhibition, allowing for active exercise, would lead to faster and more complete recovery.

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Adam S. Lepley and Lindsey K. Lepley

inhibitory effect on alpha motor neurons in the spinal cord. 11 – 13 Pain was also found to have similar inhibitory effects on alpha motor neurons due to the activation of type III and IV afferent nociceptors. 14 Researchers extended these basic insights by utilizing effusion models in humans where saline